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  • Body and Soul Part 1: Why Consciousness Isn’t Physical

    April 1, 2001

    Throughout history, Christianity has been interpreted as giving an affirmative answer to questions about the reality of the three great topics of Western philosophy: namely, God, the soul, and life everlasting. For centuries, most Christian thinkers have believed in the existence of the souls of men and beasts, as it used to be put. Animals and humans are composed of an immaterial entity—a soul, a life principle, a ground of sentience—and a body. More specifically, a human person is a unity of two distinct entities—body and soul. The human soul, while not by nature immortal, is nevertheless capable of entering an intermediate disembodied state upon death, however incomplete and unnatural this state may be, and, eventually, being reunited with a resurrected body.

    • Consciousness
  • Aliens From Another World? Getting Here From There

    April 1, 2001

    A rising challenge to Christianity, both within and beyond the borders of America, springs from the popular obsession with UFOs (unidentified flying objects) and ETI (extraterrestrial intelligent life).

    • Earth/Moon Design
    • Extrasolar Planets
    • Galaxy Design
    • Habitable Planets
    • Universe Design
    • UFOs and the Bible
    • TCM - Life Design
    • Space Travel
    • Solar System Design
    • SETI
    • Panspermia
    • Life Design
    • Laws of Physics
    • Einstein / Relativity
    • Constants of Physics
    • Mass Extinctions/Extinctions
    • Life on Other Planets
    • Close Encounters
  • Origin-of-Life Predictions Face Off: Evolution vs. Biblical Creation

    April 1, 2001

    But just pointing out the problems with the evolutionary origin-of-life models has alienated secular scientists, and has, in fact, driven many scientists away from Christ. A new approach is necessary, one that takes into account the legitimate concerns raised by secular scientists. Christians must not only present a positive case for the supernatural origin of life but also offer their case in a scientifically testable form if their ideas are to be taken seriously by the scientific community.

    • TCM - Life's Origin
    • Primordial Soup
    • Prebiotic Chemistry
    • First Life on Earth
  • Argument for the Silent: A Biblical Case Against Abortion

    April 1, 2001

    Nowhere in the Bible is abortion mentioned specifically. That silence may seem to leave room for Christians to hold different opinions as to the morality of abortion while remaining faithful to the teachings of Scripture. Yet within Christianity an interesting alignment has developed on this issue. Nearly all churches and groups that view the Bible as the unerring Word of God also view abortion in all or nearly all instances as immoral. By contrast, nearly all churches and groups that view the Bible as a fallible human witness to God view abortion as a matter of personal choice rather than of objective morality.1 It seems reasonable to conclude that biblical values (at least some of which are shared by some non-Christians) inform the position that abortion is immoral, while the opposing view is in some respects out of keeping with biblical ethics. This article supports this conclusion by setting forth a biblical case against abortion.2

    • Ethics
    • Abortion
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  • An Infinity of Universes

    January 2, 2001

    Dozens of cosmic characteristics must be exquisitely fine-tuned to make physical life possible. The degree of fine-tuning observed exceeds by many orders of magnitude the fine-tuning of which humans are capable. Despite such evidence, rather than because of it, some people, including scientists, speculate about the existence of an infinite number of universes. Given an infinite number of universes, they rationalize, at least one could be expected to develop, randomly, the characteristics physical life requires. Thus, chance, or “random fluctuations” in some kind of primeval field, seems to them as plausible an explanation for apparent design as a divine Designer.

    • Universe Design
    • Multiverse
    • Extrasolar Planets
    • Close Encounters
    • Aliens
  • Augustine of Hippo (Part 1 of 2): From Pagan, to Cultist, to Skeptic, to Christian Sage

    January 1, 2001

    The last and greatest of the men revered as the “Church Fathers” was Augustine of Hippo or “St. Augustine” (a.d. 354-430). Though Christianity has produced many prominent thinkers during the past two millennia, Augustine may be the most influential Christian thinker of all time outside of the New Testament. His significant influence, especially on Western Christianity, is directly tied to his profound work as a theologian, philosopher, apologist, and church bishop.

    • Historical Theology
    • Church Fathers
  • Closing the Gap: A Scientist’s Response to the Gap Theory

    January 1, 2001

    The work of an apologist in some ways parallels the work of a scientist. Both seek to “prove” (as in “establish by testing”) the truth of their explanation for something and, thus, to defend their idea against challenges. Both look for solutions to problems, specifically inconsistencies and unanswered questions arising from their proposed explanations. A Christian apologist’s job is to prove and defend the veracity of the Gospel, chiefly by establishing the reliability of Scripture and by solving apparent problems in biblical interpretation or theology. This brief background sheds light on the rise—and the fall—of an apologetics hypothesis popularly known as “the gap theory.”

    • Creation Miracles
    • Scientific Evidence for a Young Earth
    • Creation "Days"
    • Biblical Evidence for an Old Earth
    • Universe Design
    • Creation Passages
    • Biblical Inerrancy
    • Bible Difficulties
  • Mars Life: A Second Opinion

    January 1, 2001

    The “possible” discovery of Martian life made headlines again in March 2001. In a strained effort to uphold the evolutionary paradigm, secularists seize any hope of a Martian origin-of-life scenario with gleeful enthusiasm.1 According to one popular hypothesis, Earth might have been seeded with life from Mars carried here by meteorites a few billion years ago. More importantly, the spontaneous appearance of life on Mars would seem to indicate that life is abundant throughout our galaxy and perhaps throughout the cosmos.

    • Mars
    • Panspermia
    • Life on Other Planets
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  • Marine Body Sizes Add Weight to Creation Model

    January 1, 2001

    Evolution predicts change over time, not stasis; so researchers continue to search for an organism that shows significant evolutionary change. A recent analysis of marine creatures, however, revealed the unexpected: not the shift in body sizes predicted by evolutionary theory, but rather, an optimal body size unchanged for millions of years.

    • TCM - Speciation
    • Evolutionary Trees
    • Transitional Forms
  • Long Life Spans: "Adam Lived 930 Years and Then He Died"

    January 1, 2001

    “Adam lived 930 years and then he died.” The mere assertion that humans could live more than 900 years—as Genesis 5:5 states—seems, for many people, nothing short of absurdity. The mention of long life spans in Genesis 5 hinders these people from openly exploring the Christian faith. Unable to accept 900-year human life spans, skeptics and others view the Bible as unreliable, a book of human myth rather than divine revelation.

    • Long Life Spans
    • TCM - Human Origins
    • Bible Difficulties
  • Why Shorter Life Spans?

    January 1, 2001

    None of the explanations offered in the accompanying article imply that God randomly selected the life span of early humans or that He simply reacted to natural disasters in shortening human life. Rather, Genesis 6:3 states that God acted purposefully to shorten human life spans, and Genesis 6:5 and 11 imply that the shortening of human life spans at the time of the Flood served a specific spiritual purpose.

    • Life Design
    • Long Life Spans
    • Design
    • TCM - Human Origins
    • Noah's Flood
    • Human Origins and the Bible
    • TCM - Life Design
    • Problem of Evil
    • Biochemical Design
    • Bible Difficulties
    • TCM - Flood
    • Adam & Eve
  • Facing Up to Big Bang Challenges

    January 1, 2001

    What danger lurks in associating big bang cosmology with biblical cosmology? Most Christian physicists, astronomers, and other scientists would say, “None.” Many Christian philosophers, theologians, pastors, and other nonscientists would say, “A big one.” The difference in these answers reveals a core difference in the way the two groups think and talk about scientific theories and Christian apologetics.

    • Laws of Physics
    • TCM - Origin of the Universe
    • TCM - Big Bang
    • Multiverse
    • Constants of Physics
    • Big Bang
    • Universe Design
    • TCM - Cosmic Design
    • Scientific Evidence for an Old Earth
    • Scientific Evidence for a Young Earth
    • Particle Physics
    • Einstein / Relativity
    • Origin of the Universe
    • Biblical Evidence for an Old Earth
    • Quantum Physics
    • Astronomy and the Bible
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  • A Scientist’s Faith Evolves Toward Christ

    January 1, 2001

    Richard Deem, a Reasons To Believe (RTB) apologist, has been a scientist since childhood. As a boy, he raised hundreds of hydras in a glass jar. The one-half inch long water animals used their tentacles to paralyze the tiny shrimp Deem provided as their food. Then the hydras pulled the helpless shrimp into their mouths. Deem often stayed to watch the “feeding frenzy” and wondered about the God who created his tiny predatory pets.

    • Philosophy of Science
    • Testimonies
    • People of Faith
  • Weeding out Evolution: Book Reviews of Icons of Evolution and Science & Christianity: Four Views

    January 1, 2001

    In Icons of Evolution Jonathan Wells convincingly demonstrates that the evidence and examples of Darwinian evolution commonly found in biology textbooks are either misleading or, in some cases, false. As a result, Icons of Evolution assumes an important role in the Creation versus Evolution debate. Less than a month after its release, Icons of Evolution was cited in a Citizen’s Appeal filed in West Virginia with the Kanawha County Board of Education (Carrie Smith, “Parent Files Complaint Over Science Textbooks,” Charleston [WV] Daily Mail, Saturday, November 18, 2000). This appeal maintains that science textbooks used in Kanawha County public schools are in violation of state law. The law mandates that science curricula must present up-to-date and accurate information.

    • Transitional Forms
    • Convergence
    • Macro vs. Micro Evolution
    • Evolutionary Trees
  • Virus Argument No Longer Immune to Challenge

    January 1, 2001

    The apparent ability of certain viruses, such as HIV, to develop (“evolve”) immunity to drug treatment represents convincing, real-time proof of evolutionary advance, according to some biologists. 1 Recent research, however, poses a potent threat to this emerging icon of evolutionary theory. 2 Scientists have uncovered an alternative explanation for the acquired immunity, one that argues against naturalistic evolution.

    • Macro vs. Micro Evolution
    • Evolutionary Trees
  • "Evolving" Robots Challenge Evolution

    January 1, 2001

    “Evolvable” robots invented by a team of computer scientists from Brandeis University, Waltham, Massachusetts, headlined the popular media last summer.1 According to the press, these machines were capable of developing, on their own, new and better machines, thus mimicking, in the laboratory, the evolutionary process biologists ascribe to nature. Reporters heralded the work as a key achievement in the area of artificial life, also citing it as powerful supporting evidence for natural-process evolution.

    • Artificial Life in the Lab
    • Evolutionary Trees
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  • Repeatable Evolution or Repeated Creation?

    October 1, 2000

    Any casual observer of nature recognizes that many creatures bear some resemblance to one another. Many species of frogs, lizards, fish, and other animals and plants from different parts of the world appear to be nearly identical. This similarity has been the pattern throughout life’s history. Recent biological studies have shed light on the nature of this physical resemblance and carry significant apologetic implications. Many species that look identical are, in fact, genetically different, and therefore unrelated. In accounting for these unexpected differences, evolutionary biologists have proffered inadequate explanations. This article will discuss a few of the many recent discoveries that continue to buttress the case for a biblical Creator while continuing to erode the foundation for the evolutionary paradigm.

    • Convergence
    • Evolutionary Trees
  • Bob Stewart: Soldier, Astronaut, and Compelling Apologist

    October 1, 2000

    General Robert L. Stewart, a decorated Army combat pilot, test pilot, and former astronaut, has flown 38 types of airplanes and helicopters. Born in Washington D.C. and raised in Alabama, he received his bachelor’s degree in mathematics from the University of Southern Mississippi, and a master’s degree in aeronautical engineering from the University of Texas at Arlington. He served his country in Vietnam, where he flew UH1-B gunships and saw comrades fall in battle. He earned numerous medals, including two Purple Hearts, four Distinguished Flying Crosses, a Bronze Star, and a Meritorious Service Medal. After the war he flew cutting-edge, experimental aircraft and completed Army aviation programs that prepared him for selection as a NASA astronaut. He flew on the shuttles Challenger and Atlantis, and was one of two men who first walked in space without a tether. A member of Reasons To Believe’s Speakers Bureau, General Stewart has blended his scientific and military training with a calling to ministry by making apologetics presentations throughout the world.

    • Testimonies
    • People of Faith
  • God’s Plan for Humanity—Paradise Restored or Paradise Replaced?

    October 1, 2000

    Christians argue and divide over many issues, from core issues such as the doctrine of free will to peripheral issues such as the age of the Earth. Ironically, some of the least weighty questions draw the most vigorous public debate while the more important ones receive less attention.

    • Worldviews
    • Hell
    • Heaven and Hell
    • Philosophy of Religion
    • TCM - Two Creations
    • Garden of Eden
    • Philosophy of Science
    • Problem of Evil
    • Atheism
  • Convergence: Evidence for a Single Creator

    October 1, 2000

    Closely related to the phenomenon of repeatable evolution is convergence. Convergence refers to the widespread tendency in nature of unrelated organisms to possess nearly identical anatomical and physiological characteristics.1 The wings of birds and bats is one textbook example of convergence. Birds and bats are unrelated organisms, with birds belonging to the class Aves and bats to the class Mammalia. Though superficially similar, the wing structures of birds and bats are fundamentally different. Another common example of convergence—one in which the fundamental structural differences are not so obvious—is the remarkable anatomical similarity shared by the modern placental wolf and the extinct Tasmanian wolf.2

    • Convergence
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