Reasons to Believe

Geophysical Design

  • The Creation of Minerals

    In this year that marks Charles Darwin's 200th birthday and the 150th anniversary of the publication of his book, On the Origin of Species,1 the debate over creation and evolution has taken a … more

  • A Message from Minerals

    One of my favorite words has been hijacked, thanks to Charles Darwin, and I want to bring it back to its original meaning. Evolution has always meant “change with respect to time,” which … more

  • Majestic Mountain Grandeur

    Most of my favorite trips from childhood (and adulthood) involved mountains








    X-NONE … more

  • Oxygen Prepares Earth for Advanced Life

    This past year I undertook a project to add some habitable space to my house. As I worked—being careful with the nails—I saw parallels between my planning and certain events that brought … more

  • Subduction Design

    Stanford University geophysicist Norman Sleep has outlined some new constraints on habitable planets.1 He explains how the possible existence of advanced life crucially depends upon a planet … more

  • Antarctica and North America Once Connected

    From a biblical perspective, the advent of continents plays a critical role in God’s transformation of Earth from “formless and void” to an environment teeming with diverse … more

  • Where Did Earth Get Its Phosphorus?

    Phosphates serve as the backbone for all nucleic acids and are the major repository of chemical energy for metabolism. The human body contains about 11,000 parts per million of phosphorus by weight. … more

  • Too Much Sulfur

    Sulfur plays a crucial role in life chemistry. This fact became personal for me a year ago when I was diagnosed as sulfur deficient. Many protein functions crucially depend on sulfur. Fortunately, … more

  • More Evidence for the Design of Earthquake Activity

    In the December 2007 issue of Astrobiology Stanford University geophysicists Norman H. Sleep and Mark D. Zoback note that the higher tectonic activity during Earth’s early history could have … more

  • Getting the Continental Drift

    Earthquakes and volcanos serve as important reminders of the phenomenal forces at work underneath Earth’s surface. The shape and arrangements of the continents change as the massive tectonic … more

  • Earth’s Deep, Life-Sustaining Oxygen Reservoir

    Southern California, home to RTB, requires a huge quantity of water to maintain its large population and diverse economic and industrial activity. The region’s water needs exceed the local … more

  • Design Feature Prevents Hard Snowball Earth

    Imagine the Antarctic glaciers extending over the whole Earth. Dating back to the early 1960s, scientists proposed just such a scenario, known as a “snowball Earth” hypotheses to explain … more

  • The Rise of Atmospheric Oxygen

    Everyone knows that humans die without adequate oxygen and many know that oxygen comprises about 20% of Earth’s atmosphere. As a kid, I always wondered why Earth’s atmosphere contained … more

  • Getting Water into the Mantle

    The date was February 22, 2007. The event was a NASCAR race at California Speedway in Fontana, CA. I stood in the stands with my oldest son as the green flag dropped. As the collective roar of 32,250 … more

  • Some Like It Hot—Especially the Continents

    I ran across an interesting article in Science Daily a few weeks ago. The article’s authors point to evidence that the vast majority of North America would reside under water if the rocks making … more


    Seems anticlimactic, doesn’t it? However, if water did not possess this unusual property, Earth’s habitability would dramatically decrease. Ponds, lakes, streams, rivers, and possibly even … more