Reasons to Believe

Galaxy Design

  • Cosmological Consequences of Massive Photons

    We all learned in our junior high science classes that photons are massless. This statement has resulted in a lot of confusion for laypeople. In our junior high science classes we were also taught … more

  • Persuasive Reasons: Thoughts on Fine-Tuning

    Recently, I wrote about what I find as the most persuasive argument (scientifically speaking) for the truth of Christianity. Big bang cosmology reveals a marked correspondence between the biblical … more

  • Your Galaxy’s Diet Is Important for Your Health

    The proverb “You are what you eat” has motivated many people to eat healthier. If you want to live long and enjoy an active lifestyle, you must be disciplined and mindful of what you … more

  • Fine-Tuning the Ratio of Small to Large Stars

    For decades, astronomers have assumed that the ratio of small-mass stars to high-mass stars observed in our Milky Way Galaxy (MWG) is a universal constant for all galaxies. A growing body of data, … more

  • We Are Living in a Safe Time Window

    Negotiating traffic on Southern California freeways is tricky. Not long ago, I witnessed a collision of several cars in my rearview mirror—if I had gotten on that freeway anywhere from a few … more

  • The Black Hole at the Center of the Milky Way

    How would the world look if you saw only gamma rays? Instead of the normal tapestry of colors, everything would appear rather uniform and mundane. Lifting your gaze upward would reveal an uneven glow … more

  • Eat This: Zombies Are Real

    They prey on their own kind. Some might call it cannibalism, but it’s the only way they can survive. Indeed, the zombie apocalypse is here.

    Sort of.

    So-called “zombies” exist … more

  • Exploding Stars Drive Diversity of Life on Earth

    Astronomical events can dramatically affect life on Earth. For instance, it is well-established that a large meteor impact emanating from the solar system wiped out the dinosaurs (and many other … more

  • The Thin Milky Way

    Cite: Jo Bovy, Hans-Walter Rix, and David W. Hogg, “The Milky Way Has No Thick Disk,” The Astrophysical Journal 751 (June 1, 2012): id. 131. more

  • Like a Good Neighbor, Gas Giants Are There

    My husband and I have experienced a spate of “interesting” next-door neighbors over the last year. As a new set of neighbors recently moved in, I couldn’t help praying they’d … more

  • TNRTB Classic: Colliding Galaxies

    As I explain in Monday’s post, galaxies collide regularly with one another. These collisions play a significant role in galaxy structure—particularly the formation and maintenance of the … more

  • Milky Way Galaxy’s Midlife Crisis

    In trying to explain the fine-tuning of the Sun’s age, I will sometimes tell an audience that stars are like people. They are unstable when young and when old. Only when the Sun is almost … more

  • Top 5 Reasons

    In precisely one week Maureen and I will take the public bus of the skies to San Jose, CA. Our destination: A writers’ conference in Mount Hermon. In preparation for this (or any) trip, I must … more

  • Fine-Tuning For Life In The Universe (DEC 2004)

    © 2004 Reasons To Believe

    For physical life to be possible in the universe, several characteristics must take on specific values, and these are listed below.1 In the case of several of these … more