Reasons to Believe

Creation Update Archive - 2003

Welcome to the 2003 collection of Creation Update Archives

Table of Contents


Creation Update #155
Breakthrough Confirmation for the Big Bang Model
Air-date: 1-07-2003
Hugh Ross, Fuz Rana and Krista Bontrager

  • Discoveries Discussed
    • Measuring the polarization of background radiation
      • Matias Zaldarriaga, "Background comes to the fore," Nature 420 (December 19/26, 2002), 747-748.
      • E. M. Leitch, et al., "Measurement of polarization with the Degree of Angular Scale Interferometer," Nature 420 (December 19/26, 2002), 763-771.
      • J. M. Kovac, et al., "Detection of polarization in the cosmic microwave background using DASI," Nature 420 (December 19/26, 2002), 772-787.
    • Refining the measurement of the temperature of the background radiation
      • D.J. Fixsen and J.C. Mather, "The spectral results of the far-infrared absolute spectrophotometer instrument on COBE," The Astrophysical Journal 581 (December 20, 2002), 817-822.
    • Hubble constant (measuring the expansion rate of the universe)
      • Erik D. Reese, "Determining the cosmic distance scale from interferometric measurements of the sunyaev-zeldovich effect," The Astrophysical Journal 581 (December 10, 2002), 53-85.
      • C.D. Fassnacht, et al., "A determination of Ho with the class gravitational lens B1608+656. III. A significant improvement in the precision of the time delay measurements," The Astrophysical Journal 581 (December 20, 2002), 823-835.
    • Small RNA breakthrough
      • Jennifer Couzin, "Small RNAs Make Big Splash," Science 298 (2002), 2296-2297.
      • Ronald H.A. Plasterk, "RNA Silencing: The Genome's Immune System," Science 296 (May 17, 2002), 1263-1265.
      • Gisela Storz, "An Expanding Universe of Noncoding RNAs," Science 296 (May 17, 2002), 1260-1263.
      • Patrick Provost, et al., "Dicer is required for chromosome segregation and gene silencing in fission yeast cells," PNAS 99 (December 24, 2002), 16648-16653.
      • Ira M. Hall, et al., "RNA interference machinery regulates chromosome dynamics during mitosis and meiosis in fission yeast," PNAS 100 (January 7, 2003), 193-198.
  • Call-in Questions
    • Dean from Boulder, CO: How do harmful viruses fit into the Christian worldview?
    • Ian from Santa Clarita, CA: What is uranium decay? Is it a reliable way to date human origins?
    • Bruce Bower, "Chinese Roots: Skull may complicate human-origins debate," Science News 162 (December 28, 2002), 387.
    • Patrick from Holden, MA: If young-earth creationists think that the days are regular solar days, then what was making the "morning and evening" for the first three days of creation if the sun wasn't created until Day 4?
    • Mike in Portland, OR: Could God use the UFO deception as part of His plan for the end times?
    • Lights in the Sky and Little Green Men + The RUFO Hypothesis (DVD)
  • Email Questions
    • Sherry, a public school science teacher: Can you give me some suggestions for discoveries which validate design in creation?
    • Hugh's log of astronomical design parameters
  • Theology segment
    • Is the Christian doctrine of the Trinity a logical contradiction?

Creation Update #156
Mapping Human History
Air-date: 1-14-2003
Hugh Ross, Fuz Rana and Krista Bontrager
With special guest, Dr. Andrew Steinmann at Concordia University, IL.

  • Discoveries Discussed
    • Genetic unity of humanity
      • Mary-Claire King and Arno G.Motulsky, "Mapping Human History," Science 298 (December 20, 2002), 2342-2343.
      • Noah A Rosenberg, et al., "Genetic Structure of Human Populations," Science 298 (December 20, 2002), 2381-2385.
    • Population dynamics and genetic bottleneck
      • Gabor March, et al., "Sequence variations in the public human genome data reflect a bottlenecked population history," PNAS 100 (January 7, 2003), 376-381.
    • Measuring the speed of gravity -- Einstein was right!
      • John Whitfield, "Speed of gravity and light equal," Nature 420 (January 8, 2003), 763-771.
      • S. Kopeikin and E.B. Fomalont, "Measuring the speed of propagation of gravity," Abstract from the American Astronomical Society 201st meeting (January 2003).
    • Complications with mDNA dating methods
      • Dan Mishmar, et al., "Natural selection shaped regional mtDNA variation in humans," PNAS 100 (January 7, 2003), 171-176.
      • Lucy Forster, et al., "Natural radioactivity and human mitochondrial DNA mutations," PNAS 99 (October 15, 2002), 13950-13954.
  • Call-In Questions
    • Kenny from Milton, FL: Could mDNA be used to detect a genetic bottleneck at Noah's flood?
    • Rob in Northglen, CO: Is chirality the same for RNA, DNA and proteins?

Creation Update #157
Computer Simulation Stymies Evolutionary Theory
Air-date: 1-21-2003
Hugh Ross, Fuz Rana and Krista Bontrager

  • Discoveries Discussed
    • Computer simulation of Darwinian Evolution
      • Gabriel Yedid and Graham Bell, "Macroevolution Simulation with Autonomously Replicating Computer Programs," Nature 420 (December 2002), 810-12.
    • Cholera in Bangladesh Diminished by Filtering Water
      • Rita R. Colwell et al., "Reduction of Cholera in Bangladeshi Villages by Simple Filtration," PNAS 100 (2003).
      • Galaxy Rotation Speeds -- Another Fine-tuning Parameter for Life
      • Robert J. Thacker, Evan Scannapieco, and Marc Davis, "Violence in the Dark Ages," Astrophysical Journal 581 (December 20, 2002), 836-43
      • Donald R. Garnett, "The Luminosity-Metallicity Relation, Effective Yields, and Metal Loss in Spiral and Irregular Galaxies," Astrophysical Journal 581 (December 20, 2002), 1019-31.
    • Anthropic Principle discussed in Discover magazine
      • Bob Berman, "A Universe that is Built for Life," Discover (February 2003), 29.
  • Call-in Questions
    • Kenneth in San Marcos, CA: If light has been traveling for 14 billion years, then wouldn't the farthest light be 28 billion light years away? For more information about the geometry of the universe, Dr. Ross recommends the book, Relativity Simply Explained.
    • Damien from Australia: If we are instructed to use reason, what role does childlike faith play in matters of faith and science? Please explain the "rest" mentioned in Exodus 20:11 in light of Genesis 1:1-3?
    • Marie in Lynwood, CA: Is there a Planet X heading toward Earth? Listen to Dr. Ross's extended comment on Planet X from our February 19, 2002 broadcast.
    • Ian in Santa Clarita, CA: What possible sites are mentioned for the "Out of Africa" hypothesis? Where is the Garden of Eden?
  • Email Question
    • Eleanor wants help answering her friend's questions: Shouldn't a perfect God create a perfect world? Why is our world so imperfect? Is the earth mentioned in Genesis 1:1 our Earth?
    • Irwan from Vancouver: If scientific research reveals that God exists, how can you be sure this God is the God of the Bible?
    • For more about the scientific evidence for the God of the Bible, we recommend Dr. Ross's book, The Creator and the Cosmos.
  • Boot Camp
    • Question from John: Wouldn't the rings around Saturn have burned out by now if the earth is old?
  • Theology/Philosophy segment
    • What's the difference between moral evil and natural evil? Does "natural evil" really exist?

Creation Update #158
New Discoveries Reveal Oxygen-Poor Atmosphere of Early Earth
Air-date: 1-28-2003
Hugh Ross, Fuz Rana and Krista Bontrager

  • Discoveries Discussed
  • Sulfur isotopes reveal chemistry of early atmosphere
    • Uwe H. Wiechert, "Earth's Early Atmosphere," Science 298 (20 December 2002), 2341-42.
    • J. Farquhar et al., "Mass-Independent Sulfur of Inclusions in Diamond and Sulfur Recycling on Early Earth," Science 298 (20 December 2002), 2369-71.
    • Kirsten S. Habicht, "Calibration of Sulfate Levels in the Archean Ocean," Science 298 (20 December 2002), 2372-74.
    • For more about the methanogen model for the early earth see:
      • Alexander A. Pavlov, James F. Kasting, Jennifer L. Eigenbrode, Katherine H. Freeman, "Organic haze in Earth's early atmosphere: Source of low 13C Late Archean kerogens?" Geology v. 29, n. 11 (November 2001), 1003-1006.
  • New technique for discovering extrasolar planets (transit method)
    • R. Cowen, "Distant and Strange: Orb Isn't Just Another Planet," Science News 163 (January 18, 2003), 38.
  • Speed of Gravity Update
    • Robert Irion, "Confirmation of Gravity's Speed" Not So Fast, Science 299 (17 January 2003), 323-24.
  • Radioactive resistant bacteria and impact reseeding
    • Smadar Levin-Zaidman, "Ringlike Structure of the Deinococcus radiodurans Genome: A Key to Radioresistance" Science 299 (10 January 2003), 254-256.
  • Guest Interview: Dr. Rogier Windhorst, ASU astronomer (observational cosmology)
    • Haojing Yan, Rogier A. Windhorst, Seth H. Cohen, "Searching for z~6 Objects with the HST Advanced Camera for Surveys: Preliminary Analysis of a Deep Parallel Field," (abstract), submitted to Astrophysical Journal Letters (6 Dec 2002).
    • Haojing Yan et al., "A Simple Prediction of the Surface Density of Galaxies at z ~ 6," Astrophysical Journal 580 (December 1, 2002), 725-31.
  • E-mail questions
    • Karen asked: Isn't it impossible for a physical object to exceed the speed of light?
    • Larry wanted Fuz to comment on the supposed four-winged dinosaur discovery.
    • Henry Gee, "Fossil boosts trees-down start for flight," Nature 421 (23 January 2003).
    • X Xu, et al ., "Four-winged dinosaurs from China," Nature ,421 (23 January 2003), 335 -340.
    • Jeff from Tacoma, WA: If all humans were descended from Adam and Eve, then wouldn't there be just 4 alleles instead many?
  • Theology segment Sanctity of Life week
    • Fuz discussed ethics of "therapeutic" cloning; some cloning (xenotransplantation) may be beneficial, ethical
    • K. Samples discussed biblical basis for sanctity of human life, compared with "animal rights."
    • Carol J. Phelps et al., "Production of a1,3-Galactosyltransferase-Deficient Pigs," Science 299 (17 January 2003), 411-412.

Creation Update #159
Consider the Ant
Air-date: 2-4-2003
Hugh Ross, Fuz Rana and Krista Bontrager

  • Discoveries Discussed
    • Five Species Symbiosis
      • Elizabeth Pennisi, "On Ant Farm, A Threesome Coevolves," Science 299 (17 January 2003), 325.
      • Cameron R. Currie et al., "Ancient Tripartite Coevolution in the Attine Ant-Microbe Symbiosis," Science 299 (17 January 2003), 386-88.
      • Hugh Ross, "Symbiosis-More Complex Than We Knew," Connections vol. 1, no. 2, 2-3.
      • For more on fungus-farming ants, listen to Creation Update, 11-26-02.
    • Oscillating Neutrinos
      • Philip Ball, "Antineutrinos caught in vanishing act," Nature (22 January 2003).
      • K. Eguchi et al., "First results from KamLAND: evidence for reactor antineutrino disappearance," Physical Review Letters 90, 021802, (2003).
      • David Wark, "Particle physics: Now you see them, now you don't," Nature 421 (2003), 485.
      • For further study: Facts for Faith article, "Missing Solar Neutrinos Found."
  • Interview: General Robert Stewart about the Space Shuttle Columbia tragedy
  • Call-in Questions
    • Delbert from Dothan, AL, asks: Is your statement that God created the universe for the conquest of evil dualistic?
    • For further study:
    • Jeff from Skokie, IL, asks: Is there archaeological, historical evidence to test the claims of the Koran?
      • Resource recommended: The Quran and the Bible (Second Edition), by William Campbell.
    • Bill from Bath, SD, asks: What is your opinion of the widespread reported UFO encounters?
    • Joe in Dallas, TX asks: How do young-Earth creationists measure the creation days, considering the sun does not show up until day four?
    • Mark in Milwaukee, WI asks: What is D. Faulkner's view of the missing neutrinos? What date does Hugh give for the Tower of Babel?
  • Philosophy/theology segment
    • Kenneth Samples and Hugh Ross respond to History Channel documentary, "UFOs in the Bible" featuring Hugh. He was taken out of context.
    • For further study: Lights In the Sky & Little Green Men
  • E-mail Questions
    • Casey asks, "Did Satan [in the garden] appear in a physical form of a snake or was it like he spiritually possessed a snake or dragon, etc.?"
    • Linda asks, Were you on KCBI radio discussing your UFO book last week?
    • Markus from Finland asks, How do you interpret the word "made" in Genesis 1:16?
    • Sam asks, Can you recommend some resources for a college student studying evolution and creation?
    • Recommendations:

Creation Update #160
Preplanning of the Cell Cycle
Air-date: 2-11-2003
Hugh Ross, Fuz Rana and Krista Bontrager

  • Discoveries Discussed
    • Design of protein produced in cycle of the cell
      • Linda L. Breeden, "Periodic Transcription: A Cycle within a Cycle," Current Biology 13 (January 8, 2003), R31-38.
    • New independent method for measuring the cosmological constant -- angular
      • Gang Chen and Bharat Ratra, "Cosmological constraints from compact radio source angular size versus redshift data," The Astrophysical Journal 582 (January 10, 2003), 586-589.
    • Supernovas
      • Robert Irion, "Stars Behaving Badly," Science 299 (24 January 2003), 501.
  • Call-In Questions
    • Larry from Melbourne, FL: How does the spirit affect the brain?
      • Resources recommended:
        • Roger Penrose, The Shadows of the Mind
        • Roger Penrose, The Empire of the Mind
        • J.P. Moreland, "God and the Argument from Mind," Scaling the Secular City
    • Damien from Sydney, Australia: Why should we suffer from Adam's sin when it's not our fault?
  • Email Questions
    • Rob from Boulder, CO: In a naturalistic origin-of-life scenario, how is gene expression controlled properly as the first organism is started?
    • Daniel from the Georgia Institute of Technology: What does Dr. Ross think about the possible existence of a pre-Adamic race of men?
      • Resources where this topic is discussed:
        • Hugh Ross, The Genesis Question
        • Fuz Rana, Hugh Ross, Richard Deem, "A Scientific and Biblical Response to 'Up From the Apes'"
    • Larry from Melbourne, FL: How do theoreticians know what effect will be engendered by a change in 1 part in 120 of the parameter without simulations?
    • Don from Canada: What do you know about Dr. Carl Baugh?
    • Andy in Houston, TX: Has there been any research done on animal species showing that they came from single pairs on Noah's ark?
  • Theology/Philosophy Segment: Christian views of war
    • For more about Just War theory, we recommend our friend, Dr. Mark Clark's article, "The Paradox of War and Pacifism," available on the Leadership U web site.
      • Ken's recommendations on war:
        • J.P. Moreland and Norman Geisler, "The Life and Death Debate: Moral Issues of Our Time."
        • Robert G. Clouse, ed. "War: Four Christian Views."
        • Louis P. Pojman, "Life and Death: Grappling with the Moral Dilemmas of Our Time."
        • Victor Davis Hanson, "Carnage and Culture: Landmark Battles in the Rise of Western Power."

Creation Update #161
Baby Pictures of the Universe
Air-date: 2-18-2003
Hugh Ross, Fuz Rana and Krista Bontrager

  • Discoveries Discussed
    • WMAP image of the early universe
      • See images of the WMAP on the Goddard NASA web site.
      • "Surprise? NASA 'confirms' the big bang," (February 14, 2003) on the Answers in Genesis web site.
      • John Hartnett, "Recent Cosmic Microwave Background data supports creationist cosmologies," TJ 15 (2001), 8-12.
    • Globular clusters
      • Linda Rowan and Robert Coontz, "The Young, the Old, and the Globular," Science 299 (3 January 2003), 59.
      • Robert Irion, "The Milky Way's Restless Swarms of Stars," Science 299 (3 January 2003), 60-62.
      • Govert Schilling, "Outside Sources Frame a Galactic Puzzle," Science 299 (3 January 2003), 63-64.
      • Lawrence M. Krauss and Brian Chaboyer, "Age Estimates of Globular Clusters in the Milky Way: Constraints on Cosmology," Science 299 (3 January 2003), 65-69.
      • Christopher Sneden and John J. Cowan, "Genesis of the Heaviest Elements in the Milky Way Galaxy," Science 299 (3 January 2003), 70-75.
    • Alternatives to embryonic stem cell research
      • Eva Mezey, Sharon Key, et al., "Transplanted bone marrow generates new neurons in human brains," PNAS 100 (February 4, 2003), 1364-1369.
      • Marko E. Horb, Chia-Ning Shen, et al., "Experimental Conversion of Liver to Pancreas," Current Biology 13 (January 21, 2003), 105-115.
      • Valerie A. McLin and Aaron M. Zorn, "Organogenesis: Making Pancreas Dispatch from Liver," Current Biology 13 (February 4, 2003), R96-R98.
  • Call-in Questions
    • Jeff from Skokie, IL:
      • Is there anything preventing human cloning?
      • Could the universe have had several false starts before this one succeeded?
    • Ian from Santa Clarita, CA: Was the American Revolution a "just war"?
    • Kenny from Milton, FL: Has Fuz heard of an Italian bi-pedal "swamp ape"?
  • E-mail Questions
    • Chuck in Davis, CA: Can you include some pictures related to the discoveries you discuss on Creation Update?
    • Gonzalo wanted to ask a follow up question to last week's discussion on war: Would the U.S.'s economic interest in oil invalidate the "just war" argument?
    • Skip from Kent, WA: Has Hugh heard of the book, Faster Than the Speed of Light?
    • Jason from Calgary, Canada: Does Reasons To Believe promote descent from a common ancestor?
  • Theology/Philosophy segment
    • Theological implications of the Big Bang model

Creation Update #162
"Missing" Baryons Found
Air-date: 2-25-2003
Hugh Ross, Fuz Rana and Krista Bontrager

  • Discoveries Discussed
    • OH 62, new H. habilis specimen
      • Phillip V. Tobias, "Encore Olduvai," Science 299 (February 2003), 1193-1194.
      • Robert J. Blumenschine, "Late Pliocene Homo and Hominid Land Use from Western Olduvai Gorge, Tanzania," Science 299 (February 2003), 1217-1221.
    • Mungo man update
      • James Bowler, et al., "New ages for human occupation and climatic change at Lake Mungo, Australia," Nature 421 (2003), 837?840.
    • "Missing" baryons found
      • Fabrizio Nicastro, et al., "The far-ultraviolet signature of the 'missing' baryons in the Local Group of galaxies," Nature 421 (February 13, 2003), 719-721.
      • Amiel Sternberg, "Hot gas around the Galaxy," Nature 421 (February 13, 2003), 708.
  • Email Questions
    • Scott wants to know: Has Hugh Ross responded to the book, "Starlight and Time"?
    • Chris in Mt. Arlington, NJ: Is it true that the cosmic background radiation is not "lumpy" enough to produce stars and planets?
    • Jim needs help with a school assignment: I am taking a class at the local university in which I need to lead a discussion about a recent scientific discovery. Can you recommend something related to the creation/evolution debate?
      • Five Species Symbiosis
        • Creation Update -- "Consider the Ant" (air-date: 2-4-03) and "Have Scientists Discovered a Trigger for the Cambrian Explosion"? (air-date: 11-26-02)
        • Elizabeth Pennisi, "On Ant Farm, A Threesome Coevolves," Science 299 (17 January 2003), 325.
        • Cameron R. Currie et al., "Ancient Tripartite Coevolution in the Attine Ant-Microbe Symbiosis," Science 299 (17 January 2003), 386-88.
        • Ulrich G. Mueller and Nicole Gerardo, "Fungus-farming insects: Multiple origins and diverse evolutionary histories" PNAS 24 (November 26, 2002), 15247-15249.
        • Hugh Ross, "Symbiosis- More Complex Than We Knew," Connections vol. 1, no. 2, 2-3.
      • Dinosaur extinction and replacement
        • P.E. Olsen, D.V. Kent, et al., "Ascent of Dinosaurs Linked to an Iridium Anomaly at the Triassic-Jurassic Boundary," Science 296 (May 17, 2002), 1305-1307.
      • Bill from Bath, SD: What is the current state of young earth creation science?
      • Tim from Japan: Could Hugh clarify what he means when he says, "light first separated from darkness" in relation to the WMAP discovery?
      • Harley wants to know: Could the energy from the space-energy density be harnessed?
      • Joey: Does God see the past and present at the same time?
      • Paul wanted Hugh to respond to an article on the web site:
        • Where are the missing anti-matter? (9-17-02)
        • Where is the missing mass? (listen to any show mentioning the space-energy density term or cosmological constant)
        • Where are the missing neutrinos? (2-04-03)
        • Where is the missing life? See our books: Lights in the Sky and Little Green Men and The Creator and the Cosmos.
  • Boot Camp: Who was Cain's wife?
  • Theology/Philosophy segment
    • Can't I do whatever I want with my own body as long as I don't hurt anyone?

Creation Update #163
Putting the Anthropic Principle to the Test
Air-date: 3-04-2003
Hugh Ross and Krista Bontrager
Special guest: Dr. Don Page, from the University of Edmonton, Alberta

  • Discoveries Discussed
    • Gamma ray bursts - an independent test for an expanding universe
      • Bradley E. Schaefer, "Gamma-ray burst Hubble diagram to z-4.5," The Astrophysical Journal 583 (February 1, 2003), L67-L70.
    • Migrating gas giants
      • Philip J. Armitage, "A reduced efficiency of terrestrial planet formation following giant planet migration," The Astrophysical Journal 582 (January 1, 2003), L47-L50.
    • Testing the anthropic principle
      • Don N. Page, "Anthropic estimates of the charge and mass of the proton," Pre-print posted on the Los Alamos web site (February 13, 2003).
  • Call-in Questions
    • Randy from Collierville, TN:
      • If the speed of light varied, then how can the universe be homogeneous and uniform?
      • Do some young-earth creationists believe in evolution?
        • Information Theory and the Young-Earth Speciation Model (air-date: 10-01-2002)
        • Lions and Tigers and Ligers, Oh My! (air-date: 11-25-2000)
    • Stan from Placentia, CA wanted to get Hugh?s comment on a recent newspaper story that gravity may call string theory into question.
  • Email Questions
    • Paul in Colorado: Does the fact that the universe is now thought to be in accelerated expansion imply that the cosmological constant is not as fine-tuned as previously thought?
    • Bob our engineer wanted to know: What does Hugh think of the ?Big Rip? theory for the end of the universe?
    • Martin in Westminster, CO: Could the universe have popped into existence through a black hole and one day return to a black hole?
    • Skip in Kent, WA: What happened to Cro Magnun man? Was he human?
  • Theology/Philosophy Segment
    • How are humans different than animals?

Creation Update #164
False Memories and Alien Abductions
Air-date: 03-11-2003
Hugh Ross, Fuz Rana and Krista Bontrager

  • Discoveries Discussed
    • The steady-state model and the cosmic background radiation
      • G. R. Burbidge, Fred Hoyle, et al., "Inhomogeneities in the microwave background radiation interpreted within the framework of the quasi-steady state cosmology," The Astrophysical Journal 585 (March 1, 2003), 1-11.
    • Gamma rays result of quantized red shifts?
      • G. R. Burbidge, "The sources of gamma-ray bursts and their connections with QSOs and active galaxies," The Astrophysical Journal 585 (March 1, 2003), 112-120.
    • Biochemical design of kidneys
      • Lubert Stryer, Biochemistry, 3rd ed. (New York, W.H. Freeman, 1988) 619-622.
    • Local fluff and Local bubble
      • Donald P. Cox and Louise Helenius, "Flux-Tube dynamics and a model for the origin of the local fluff," The Astrophysical Journal 583 (January 20, 2003), 205-228.
      • Jesus Maiz-Apellaniz, "The origin of the local bubble," The Astrophysical Journal Letters 560 (October 10, 2001), L83-L86.
  • Call-in Questions
    • Bill from SD: Why was Don Page talking about protons in the "observable" universe?
    • Ian from Santa Clarita, CA: How does the non-observable universe affect the anthropic principle?
    • Joyce from San Luis Obispo, CA:
      • Is the anthropic principle based on circular reasoning?
      • How do you reason with an unbeliever from a generic God idea to Jesus Christ as the God of the universe? For more about this issue, Dr. Ross recommends his book, Beyond the Cosmos.
  • Email Questions
    • Andy wanted to ask a follow up question about our interview with theoretical physicist, Don Page: Would the cosmological constant apply to the non-observable universe?
    • Dan from Grandview, MO: Why do scientists keep ratcheting the age of the universe down (from 17 billion years ago to 13.7 billion years ago)?
  • Theology/Philosophy segment
    • Interview with Harvard psychologist, Richard McNally, about his research into false alien memories

Creation Update #165
Magnetars Reveal Design
Air date: 3-18-03
Hugh Ross, Fuz Rana, Kenneth Samples, and Joe Aguirre

  • Discoveries Discussed
    • Fine-tuned Supernovae Events Yield Life-Essential Elements
      • Todd A. Thompson, "Magnetic Protoneutron Star Winds and r-Process Nucleosynthesis," Astrophysical Journal 585 (March 1, 2003), L33-36.
    • Resource for list of r-process elements essential for life
    • Fine-tuned Characteristics in Supernova of 1006
      • P. Frank Winkler, Gaurav Gupta, and Knox S. Long, "The SN 1006 Remnant: Optical Proper Motions, Deep Imaging, Distance, and Brightness at Maximum," Astrophysical Journal 585 (March 1, 2003), 324-35.
  • Call-in Questions
    • Jim from Lusby, MD, asks: Does inflationary model for universe require a beginning? Question comes in response to article by Arvind Borde, Alan H. Guth, and Alexander Vilenkin, "Inflationary Spacetimes Are Not Past-Complete," arXiv:gr-qc/0110012 v2 (14 Jan 2003), 1-4.
    • Resource: The Creator and the Cosmos, 3d ed.
    • Dave from Seattle, WA, asks: Did dinosaurs have feathers and evolve into birds?
    • Randy from Collierville, TN asks: When does a rock become a rock given radiometric dating?
    • Jason from Harrisburg, PA, asks: What about natural evil/spiritual evil--any relationship?
  • E-mail Question
    • Andy asks: Are the supposed 350,000-year-old footprints found in Italy human?
  • Philosophy/Theology Segment

Creation Update #166
Convergence and the Dinosaur-Bird Link
Air date: 3-25-03
Fuz Rana, Kenneth Samples, and Joe Aguirre

  • Discoveries Discussed
    • Convergence in teeth design of jawed vertebrates and insect body plans
      • Richard H. Thomas, "Wingless Insects and Plucked Chickens," Science 299 (21 Mar 2003), 1854-55.
      • Moya Meredith Smith and Zerina Johanson, "Separate Evolutionary Origins of Teeth from Evidence in Fossil Jawed Vertebrates," Science 299 (21 Feb 2003), 1235-36.
      • Erik Stokstad, "Primitive Jawed Fishes Had Teeth of Their Own Design," Science 299 (21 Feb 2003), 1164.
      • Francesco Nardi et al., "Hexapod Origins: Monophyletic or Paraphyletic?" Science 299 (21 Mar 2003), 1887-89.
      • For further study: Fazale R. Rana, "Repeatable Evolution or Repeated Creation?" Facts for Faith 4 (2000), 13-21.
    • Feathers first for dinosaurs or birds?
      • Richard O. Prum and Alan H. Brush, "Which Came First, the Feather or the Bird?" Scientific American 288, no. 3 (March 2003), 84-93.
    • Microbial diseases a part of God's good design
      • S.L. Carrithers, "Diarrhea or colorectal cancer: Can bacterial toxins serve as a treatment for colon cancer?" PNAS 100, no. 6 (March 18, 2003), 3018-20.
      • G.M. Pitari et al., "Bacterial enterotoxins are associated with resistance to colon cancer," PNAS 100, no. 5 (March 4, 2003), 2695-99.
      • Hong Wei Chu et al., "Effects of Respiratory Mycoplasma pneumoniae Infection on Allergen-Induced Bronchial Hyperresponsiveness and Lung Inflammation in Mice," Infection and Immunity 71, no. 3 (March 2003), 1520-26.
  • Call-in Question
    • Kenny from Milton, FL, comments on the difficulty in explaining the bird-dinosaur link from an evolutionary perspective.
  • E-mail Question
    • Tim from Japan asks: How does an evolutionist account for the change in lung structure (assuming a dinosaur-bird link) from reptilian to avian in one generation?
  • Philosophy/Theology Segment
    • Why do many in the Arab/Islamic world hate America?
    • Is it right that America should see itself as the world's policeman?
    • Should we allow our children to watch war coverage on television?

Creation Update PRIMETIME #5
Interview With Dr. Duane Gish, Institute for Creation Research
Air date: 3-13-03
Hugh Ross, Fuz Rana, Kenneth Samples

  • Dr. Duane Gish Bio
  • Call-in Questions
    • Tim from Japan asks: Isn't the "appearance of age" argument similar to the "appearance of design" argument in that it says that things look a certain way but really aren't?
    • George from LaVerne, CA, asks: (Re: photons) Shouldn't we see light reflecting off nebulae given your estimate for the age of the universe?
    • Kenny from Milton, FL, asks: If juvenile dinosaurs were taken on the ark, what impact would rapid growth rates have on space?
    • Walter from Dallas, TX, asks: What does Hawaiian Island formation tell us about the age of the Earth?
  • Giveaway: "God, Darwin, or Both"
    • Two-tape set featuring Hugh Ross, Duane Gish, and Eugenie Scott
  • Dr. Gish's book, Evolution: The Fossils Still Say No!

CU #167
Dark Energy Density and Dust Fine-tuned for Life
Air date: 4-01-03
Hugh Ross, Fuz Rana, Kenneth Samples, and Joe Aguirre

  • Discoveries Discussed
    • Cosmological Parameter Testing Shows Fine-tuning
      • J. Garriga and A. Vilenkin, "Testing Anthropic Predictions for Dark Energy," arXiv:astro-ph/0210358 v1 (16 Oct 2002), 1-21.
      • Alessandro Melchiorri et al., "Cosmological Constraints from a Combined Analysis of the Cluster Mass Function and Microwave Background Anisotropies," Astrophysical Journal 586 (March 20, 2003), L1-3.
    • Planets Enshrouded In Dust Necessary for Life
      • Travis S. Barman, Peter H. Hauschildt, and France Allard, "Irradiated Planets," Astrophysical Journal 556 (2001 Aug 1), 885-95.
    • Gut Bacteria Beneficial to Human Hosts
      • Michael S. Gilmore and Joseph J. Ferretti, "The Thin Line Between Gut Commensal and Pathogen," Science 299 (28 March 2003), 1999-2001.
      • I.T. Paulsen et al., "Role of Mobile DNA in the Evolution of Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococcus faecalis," Science 299 (28 March 2003), 2071-74.
      • Jian Xu et al., "A Genomic View of the Human-Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron Symbiosis," Science 299 (28 March 2003), 2074-76.
      • "Superbug killer found in rockpool," Feb. 27, 2003, 1-2.
        (Provided by Creation Update listener Andy)
  • Call-in Question
    • Ian from Santa Clarita, CA, asks: How do you define a species given that some reproduce asexually?
  • E-mail Questions
    • Listener from Harvard asks: Are there eleven dimensions to God?
    • Dan from Santa Clara, CA, asks: Why would God design vestigial organs like the appendix? Is the knee poorly designed?
      • Resource: Darwin's God: Evolution and the Problem of Evil
    • Paul in Boulder, CO, asks: How do Neanderthal and human base pair differences compare with base pair differences between members of the same species?
      • Resource: Richard G. Klein, "Whither the Neanderthals?" Science 299 (7 March 2003), 1525-27.
    • Morgan asks: Are there other words to use for "epoch" and if so, why not use them instead of "yom?"
    • Pete asks: Do animals that prey on one another fit into God's perfect world?
      • Resource: Life and Death In Eden
  • Philosophy/Theology Segment
    • Why so many wars fought in the name of Christianity?

CU #169
Solar-type Stars, Rotation, and X-rays Show Narrow Window of Time for Life
Air date: 4-15-03
Hugh Ross, Fuz Rana, and Dave Rogstad

  • Discoveries Discussed
    • Just-Right Star Parameters
      • Sydney A. Barnes, "A Connection Between the Morphology of the X-ray Emission and Rotation for Solar-type Stars In Open Clusters," Astrophysical Journal 586 (April 1, 2003), L145-47.
      • Sydney A. Barnes, "On the Rotational Evolution of Solar- and Late-type Stars, Its Magnetic Origins, and the Possibility of Stellar Gyrochronology," Astrophysical Journal 586 (March 20, 2003), 464-79.
    • Life's Minimum Complexity
      • K. Kobayashi et al., "Essential Bacillus subtilis genes," PNAS 100 (April 15, 2003), 4678-83.
      • Sigal Ben-Yehuda, David Z. Rudner, and Richard Losick, "RacA, a Bacterial Protein That Anchors Chromosomes to the Cell Poles," Science 299 (24 January 2003), 532-36.
      • Lucy Shapiro, Harley H. McAdams, and Richard Losick, "Generating and Exploiting Polarity in Bacteria," Science 298 (6 December 2002), 1942-46.
    • Response to National Center for Science Education's published article on intelligent design
      • Glenn Branch, "'Intelligent Design' Visits San Francisco," Reports of the National Center for Science Education vol. 22, no. 6 (Nov-Dec 2002), 6-9.
  • Call-in Questions
    • Mike from Venice, CA, asks: How many stars are capable of producing life-sustaining planets?
    • Kenny from Milton, FL, asks: Does the presence of zircon crystals on the early earth allow for a global ocean? And, How early do land plants emerge?
  • E-mail Questions
    • Mark from Prince George, British Columbia, asks:
      • 1) What scientific support is there for the early earth being completely covered by ocean rather than dry ground?
      • 2) Did trees and seed-bearing plants really exist before the animals?
      • 3) Did birds really exist before land animals?
      • Resources

CU #170
Two New Big Bang Confirmations
Air date: 4-22-03
Hugh Ross, Fuz Rana, Kenneth Samples, and Joe Aguirre

  • Discoveries Discussed
    • New Critique of Cardassian Expansion of Universe
      • Zong-Hong Zhu and Masa-Katsu Fujimoto, "Constraints on Cardassian Expansion from Distant Type Ia Supernovae," Astrophysical Journal 585 (2003 March 1), 52-56.
    • Population III Stars Detected as Big Bang Predicts
      • Jonathan Mackey, Volker Bromm, and Lars Hernquist, "Three Epochs of Star Formation in the High-Redshift Universe," Astrophysical Journal 586 (2003 March 20), 1-11.
      • Toshikazu Shigeyama, Takuji Tsujimoto, and Yuzuru Yoshii, "Excavation of the First Stars," Astrophysical Journal 586 (2003 March 20), L57-60.
      • Resources
    • Genes of human pathogen provide information about origins
      • Brian G. Spratt, "Stomachs Out of Africa," Science 299 (7 March 2003), 1528-29.
      • Daniel Falush et al., "Traces of Human Migrations in Helicobacter pylori Populations," Science 299 (7 March 2003), 1582-85.
    • African malaria parasite expansion follows human agricultural spread
      • Deirdre A. Joy et al., "Early Origin and Recent Expansion of Plasmodium falciparum," Science 300 (11 April 2003), 318-21.
  • E-mail Questions
    • Creation Update listener Becky, a specialist in body mechanics, writes to comment on the necessity of the patella (kneecap): "As a physical therapist I can reassure everyone that the patella is a wonderful little bone that aids greatly in our function. Although much like many parts of our bodies we could live fine without a patella or either of them for that matter, in reality it provides an excellent biomechanical advantage. Since our legs are necessary to be able to produce great amounts of force it allows a change in the line of pull of the quadriceps muscle providing the ability to have greater torque production. Even with activities that require less torque production the presence of a patella helps to allow better effectiveness (energy conservation) of the quadriceps muscle."
    • Mark asks, As I understand it, Einstein invented the cosmological constant as a "fudge factor" so his equations would not show an expanding universe. When Hubble proved the expansion, Einstein discarded it--calling this "the greatest blunder of his life." Now we have resurrected it--saying it's fine-tuned to one part in 10 to the 120th to permit life. Is this the same constant?
      • Resource
        • The Fingerprint of God
    • Joey asks, What is RTB's position on the long day of Joshua and the sun going backward in the sky with Isaiah and Hezekiah?
    • Jason asks, What is your opinion of Jack Cuozzo and his book Buried Alive? He seems to argue that Neanderthal fossils had been deceptively altered to appear more ape-like and that they may have been members of the pre-flood race of man.
    • Sue in Ohio asks about the earth's magnetic field and the "shrinking sun" as young-earth arguments.
      • Resource
        • Creation and Time
    • Philosophy/Theology Segment
      • How can Christians responsibly discuss the Scott Peterson double homicide case in light of inevitable arguments about abortion?
      • How do abortion rights advocates view the baby (fetus) at eight months?
    • Resources
      • Death Before Birth
      • Politically Correct Death
      • Stand to Reason

CU #171
Hominid Fossil Remains Redated
Air Date: 4-29-03
Hugh Ross, Fuz Rana, Kenneth Samples, and Joe Aguirre

  • Discoveries Discussed
    • New Date Places Australopithecine Specimens One Million Years Earlier
      • T.C. Partridge et al., "Lower Pliocene Hominid Remains from Sterkfontein," Science 300 (25 April 2003), 607-12.
      • Ann Gibbons, "Great Age Suggested for South African Hominids," Science 300 (25 April 2003), 562.
    • Brighter Young SunPermits Abundance and Diversity of Life on Early Earth
      • I.-Juliana Sackmann and Arnold I. Boothroyd, "Our Sun. V. A Bright Young Sun Consistent with Helioseismology and Warm Temperatures on Ancient Earth and Mars," Astrophysical Journal 583 (2003), 1024-39.
  • Call-in Questions
    • Bill from Bath, S.D., asks: Please comment on an article on "multiverses" in Scientific American. Are scientists being intellectually dishonest?
      • Resource: The Creator and the Cosmos
    • Patrick from Maine asks: Does "yom" preceded by an ordinal always indicate 24 hours?
      • Resource: Report of the Ad Interim Committee on Creation
  • E-mail Question
    • Tim and Monica from Portland ask: Is belief in a personal God among scientists rising or declining? Question comes in response to Nature article, "Leading scientists still reject God"
  • Theology/Philosophy Segment
    • Do all Muslims believe similarly? Can a nation under Islamic rule be free? How can Christians relate to their Muslim neighbors?
    • Resources
      • Answering Islam
      • The Qur'an and The Bible In the Light of History and Science

CU #172
Black Hole Discovery Confirms WMAP Result
Air date: 5-06-03
Hugh Ross, Fuz Rana, Kenneth Samples, and Joe Aguirre

  • Discoveries Discussed
    • Distant Quasar Contains Massive Black Hole
      • Chris J. Willott, Ross J. McLure, and Matt J. Jarvis, "A 3 x 10 9 M. Black Hole in the Quasar SDSS J1148+5251 AT z = 6.41," Astrophysical Journal 587 (2003 April 10), L15-18.
    • Function Found for a Pseudogene
      • Jeannie T. Lee, "Complicity of gene and pseudogene," Nature 423 (1 May 2003), 26-28.
      • Shinji Hirotsune et al., "An expressed pseudogene regulates the messenger-RNA stability of its homologous coding gene," Nature 423 (1 May 2003), 91-96.
  • Call-in Questions
    • David from Lufkin, TX, asks: If Jesus is God, how do you account for differing genealogical lines of David in the gospels?
    • Patrick from Brookfield, MA, asks: Was there gravity before the fourth creation day?
      • Resource
        • Framework Interpretation: Interview with Rev. Lee Irons
    • Ian from Santa Clarita, CA, asks: What did WMAP predict? Please respond to Science News article, "A Rocky Start" found in Kendall Morgan, "A Rocky Start: Fresh Take on Life's Oldest Story," Science News 163 (April 26, 2003), 264-66.
      • Resource
      • Biotic Borders: Cell Membranes Under Scrutiny
    • Derek from Houston, TX, asks: Why do people not want to explore different models for interpreting Genesis creation days?
  • E-mail Question
    • Kim asks: Can you recommend some secular journals that you consider important?
      • Science News
      • Science Magazine
      • Nature
      • Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
  • Theology/Philosophy Segment
    • Discussion of James Watson and Francis Crick's comments on science and religion as quoted in BreakPoint, May 5, 2003

CU #173
DNA Evidence and Multiregional Hypothesis
Air Date: 5-13-03
Hugh Ross, Fuz Rana, and Joe Aguirre

  • Discoveries Discussed
    • DNA Sequencing Refutes Neanderthal-Human Connection and Multiregional Origin for Humanity
      • David Caramelli et al., "Evidence for a genetic discontinuity between Neandertals and 24,000-year-old anatomically modern Europeans," PNAS 100 (May 27, 2003), 6593-97.
    • Early Star Formation, Metallicity Confirm WMAP Discovery
      • Jason X. Prochaska, J. Christopher Howk, and Arthur M. Wolfe, "The Elemental Abundance Pattern in a Galaxy at z = 2.626," Nature 423 (1 May 2003), 57-59.
      • John Cowan, "Elements of Surprise," Nature 423 (1 May 2003), 29.
      • Wolfram Freudling, Michael R. Corbin, and Kirk T. Korista, "Iron Emission in z = 6 QSOs," Astrophysical Journal 587 (2003 April 20), L67-70.
    • Interplanetary Dust from Meteorites has Origin-of-Life Implications
      • Kazushige Tomeoka et al., "Interplanetary Dust from the Explosive Dispersal of Hydrated Asteroids by Impacts," Nature 423 (1 May 2003), 60-63.
    • Ancient DNA and Protein Studies to Aid Scientific Advance
      • Eske Willerslev et al., "Diverse Plant and Animal Genetic Records from Holocene and Pleistocene Sediments," Science 300 (May 2, 2003), 791-95.
      • Erik Stokstad, "Ancient DNA Pulled From Soil," Science 300 (18 April 2003), 407.
      • S. Perkins, "Fertile Ground: Snippets of DNA Persist in Soil for Millennia," Science News 163 (April 19, 2003), 244.
      • Amanda Yarnell, "Ancient Proteins Reveal the Past," Chemical & Engineering News (online) accessed 4-21-03.
  • Call-in Questions
    • John from Costa Mesa, CA, asks: Would you be able to hear the big bang if you were a million miles away?
    • George from Pasadena, CA, asks: Has there been a response from Dr. Gish on starlight travel time?
  • E-mail Questions
    • Russell asks: How do you respond to criticisms by Glenn Morton of your book, The Genesis Question?
    • Rusty asks: Why do you think there is a lack of creationists publishing papers?
    • Iolo asks: Could you point to any record in the Bible where it states the world is flat?

CU PT #6
Primetime Interview with Phillip Johnson
Air date: 5-15-03
Hugh Ross, Fuz Rana, and Joe Aguirre

  • Discussion of Intelligent Design/Similarities and Differences with RTB
  • Call-in Questions
    • Tim from Japan asks: Don't we need more than a "demolition of the pillar" of naturalism?
    • Peter from Akron, OH, asks: Should people have to state assumptions?
    • Ed from Medford, OR, asks: Can you mix law and science?
    • Walter from Dallas, TX, asks: How far do you go into ID before you need to ask about a designer?
  • E-mail Question
    • Rob asks: What do you think about leading with the big bang and design in the universe first, the origin of life second, and design in biological systems last? We seem to operate in the reverse order now with limited results.
  • Books by Phil Johnson
    • The Right Questions: Truth, Meaning, and Public Debate
    • The Wedge of Truth: Splitting the Foundations of Naturalism
    • Objections Sustained: Subversive Essays on Evolution, Law & Culture
    • Defeating Darwinism By Opening Minds
    • Reason in the Balance: The Case Against Naturalism in Science, Law, and Education
    • Darwin On Trial
  • Paper on the Santorum amendment by Johnson mentioned on the Web cast
    • Intelligent Design, Freedom, and Education

CU #174
Homo Erectus Skull Discoveries Too Small
Air date: 5-20-03
Hugh Ross, Fuz Rana, Kenneth Samples, and Joe Aguirre

  • Discoveries Discussed
    • Brain size of Homo erectus too small to link to humans
      • Ann Gibbons, "A Shrunken Head for African Homo erectus," Science 300 (9 May 2003), 893.
    • Oldest (35,000 years) modern human remains found
      • Ann Gibbons, "First Modern Remains in Europe," Science 300 (9 May 2003), 894.
    • Worm protein find has implications for long life spans
      • Ao-Lin Hsu, Coleen T. Murphy, Cynthia Kenyon, "Regulation of Aging and Age-Related Disease by DAF-16 and Heat-Shock Factor," Science 300 (16 May 2003), 1142-45.
    • Resources
  • Other Items Discussed
    • Miller-Urey Experiment No Longer Relevant
      • Jeffrey L. Bada and Antonio Lazcano, "Prebiotic Soup--Revisiting the Miller Experiment," Science 300 (2 May 2003), 745-46.
    • Naturalistic Explanation for Free Will/Determinism Critiqued
      • Melvin Konner, "The buck stops here: Do we have free will, or are all of our choices predetermined?" (Review of Daniel Dennett's, Freedom Evolves), Nature 423 (1 May 2003), 17-18.
    • Resource
      • Scaling the Secular City
  • Call-in Questions
    • Jacob from Chicago asks: "What about oscillating universes?"
      • Resource
        • The Creator and the Cosmos
    • George from Pasadena, CA, asks: "Have you read John Morris's book, The Big Bang--Is It Biblical?"
  • E-mail Question
    • Markus from Finland asks: "What is the Kalam Cosmological Argument?"
      • Resource
        • Scaling the Secular City

CU #175
Cosmology and Particle Physics "Problem"
Air date: 5-27-03
Hugh Ross, Fuz Rana, Kenneth Samples, and Joe Aguirre

  • Discoveries Discussed
  • Cosmological constant suggests more fine-tuning
    • Lawrence M. Krauss, "A just-so story," Nature 423 (15 May 2003), 230-31.
    • James D. Bjorken, "Cosmology and the Standard Model," (Abstract), Physical Review D vol. 67 iss.4 (February 2003).
    • Hugo Martel, Paul R. Shapiro, and Steven Weinberg, "Likely Values of the Cosmological Constant," Astrophysical Journal 492 (1998 January 1), 29-40.
  • Response To Chimp-Human Link
    • Derek E. Wildman et al., "Implications of natural selection in shaping 99.4% nonsynonymous DNA identity between humans and chimpanzees: Enlarging genus Homo," PNAS 100 (June 10, 2003), 7181-88.
    • Randolph E. Schmid, "Chimps May Have Closer Links to Humans," Associated Press.
  • Fish Feel Pain (discussed during philosophy/theology segment)
    • Constance Holden, ed., "Tender Lips," Science 300 (9 May 2003), 897.
      • Resource
        • Life and Death In Eden
  • Call-in Questions
    • David from Roanoke, VA, asks: What resources would you recommend for Japanese? (In response to presence of in-studio guest Tim Boyle from RTB Japan)
    • John from Seattle asks: How did you come about your calculations for the origin of life?
      • Resources
        • Information Theory and Molecular Biology (out of print)
        • Self-reproducing automata and the origin of life
    • Cliff from Florida asks: Is a local flood essential to RTB's viewpoint?
    • Joe from N. Dakota asks: How do young-earth creationists explain early Earth's atmosphere?
    • Tim (in studio) asks: Concerning the early dates for modern humans in Europe, how does this affect RTB's model of the flood affecting only the greater Mesopotamian region?
  • Other items
    • Hugh Ross (on front cover) and Fuz Rana featured in Charisma magazine
      • Andy Butcher, "He Sees God in the Stars," Charisma & Christian Life vol. 28, no. 11 (June 2003), 38-44.
    • Brief interview with Tim Boyle of RTB Japan

CU #176
God’s Perfect Timing for Life: Geophysical Evidence for the Early Heavy Bombardment
Air date: 06-03-03
Hugh Ross, Fuz Rana, Kenneth Samples, and Krista Bontrager

  • Discoveries Discussed
    • Samarium to Neodymium insights into the early Earth
      • Guillaume Caro, Bernard Bourdon, Jean-Louis Birck and Stephen Moorbath, "146 Sm— 142 Nd evidence from Isua metamorphosed sediments for early differentiation of the Earth’s mantle," Nature 423 (22 May 2003), 428-431.
      • See also: Radiometric Dating: A Christian Perspective, by Gordon Weins
    • Short tandem repeats — genetic research for human origins
      • Lev. A. Zhivotovsky, Noah A. Rosenberg, and Marcus W. Feldman, “Features of Evolution and Expansion of Modern Humans, Inferred from Genomewide Microsatellite Markers,” American Journal of Human Genetics 72 (2003), 1171-1186.
    • God can do it better than man!
      • Philip Ball, “Size matters,” Nature 423 (15 May 2003), 238.
      • Huajian Gao, et al., “Materials become insensitive to flaws as nanoscale: Lessons from nature,” PNAS 100 (13 May 2003), 5597-5600.
      • Fred J. Sigworth, “Life’s transistors,” Nature 423 (1 May 2003), 21.
      • Youxing Jiang, et al., “X-ray structure of a voltage-dependent K+ channel,” Nature 423 (1 May 2003), 33.
      • Youxing Jiang, et al., “The principle of gating charge movement in a voltage-dependent K+ channel,” Nature 423 (1 May 2003), 42.
  • Call-In Questions
    • Bill from South Dakota: What is a “neo-Lawrensian” with regard to Einstein’s theory of relativity?
      • Hugh’s recommendations about the philosophy of quantum mechanics
        • Philosophical Consequences of Quantum Theory: Reflections on Bell’s Theorem, ed. By James T. Cushing and Ernan McMullin
        • Quantum Reality: Beyond the New Physics: An Excursion into Metaphysics and the Meaning of Reality, Nick Herbert
        • Quantum physics: Illusion or Reality? by Alastair Rae
    • Randy in Tennessee: Are “entropy” and “decay” the same thing?
    • Larry from Athens, GA: Is time travel possible — forward and backward?
      • Lights in the Sky and Little Green Men, Hugh Ross, Kenneth Samples and Mark Clark
      • The rUFO Hypothesis (VHS and DVD)
    • Ian from Santa Clarita, CA: What does Hugh think is going on with the medium who contacted Samuel in 1 Samuel 28?
  • Email Questions
    • Kris wants to know: Could a legless lizard be a transitional form?
  • Theology/Philosophy segment
    • Television Psychics: Are they real?

CU #177
Avian’s “Big Bang”
Air date: 06-10-03
Hugh Ross, Fuz Rana, Kenneth Samples, and Krista Bontrager

  • Discoveries Discussed
    • Sudden appearance of birds in the fossil record
      • Alan Feduccia, "’Big bang’ for tertiary birds?," TRENDS in Ecology and Evolution 18 (April 2003), 172-176.
    • Rapid mouse evolution?
      • Oliver R.W. Pergams, Wayne M. Barnes, and Dennis Nyberg, "Rapid change in mouse mitochondrial DNA," Nature 423 (22 May 2003), 397.
    • Fine-tuning the co-rotation of galaxies
      • J.R.D. Lepine, I.A. Archarova, and Yu. N. Mishurov, "Corotation, stellar wandering, and fine structure of the galactic abundance pattern," The Astrophysical Journal 589 (May 20, 2003), 210-216.
      • Y. N. Mishurov, J.R.D. Lepine, and I.A. Archarova, "Corotation: Its influence on the chemical abundance pattern of the galaxy," The Astrophysical Journal Letters 571 (June 1, 2003), L113-L115.
  • Call-In Questions
    • Colin from Irondale, AL: Roman Catholic response to birth control discussion
    • Jeff from Chicago, IL: Is there any moral problems involved in long-term egg preservation?
    • George in Pasadena, CA: Follow-up comment on the book, Is the big bang biblical: And 99 other questions with John Morris
    • William in Vernon, IN: Why did Jesus leave?
  • Email Questions
    • Rusty in Anaheim, CA: Wouldn’t the finding of organic material near a fossilized dinosaur indicate that it is only thousands of years old and not millions?
    • Roger wanted to know: Is the North Pole empty of stars? Is that what Job 26:7 is refers to?
  • Theology/Philosophy Segment
    • Should Christians use birth control?
      • For more on contraception and the Christian faith, Kenneth recommends:
      • Evangelical Ethics: Issues Facing the Church Today, John Jefferson Davis (available through

CU #178
Is Homo sapiens idaltu the “Missing Link?”
Air date: 06-17-03
Hugh Ross, Fuz Rana, and Krista Bontrager

  • Discoveries Discussed
    • New bi-pedal primate species: Homo species idaltu
      • Tim D. White, Berhame Asfaw, et al., "Pleistocene Homo sapiens from Middle Awash, Ethiopia," Nature 423 (June 12, 2003), 742-747.
      • J. Desmond Clark, Yonas Beyene, et al., “Stratiographic, chronological and behavioural contexts of Pleistocene Homo sapiens from Middle Awash, Ethiopia,” Nature 423 (June 12, 2003), 747-752.
      • Chris Stringer, “Out of Ethiopia,” Nature 423 (June 12, 2003), 692-695.
      • Ann Gibbons, “Oldest Members of Homo sapiens Discovered in Africa,” Science 300 (June 13, 2003), 1641.
      • Daniel E. Lieberman, Brandeis M. McBratney and Gail Krovitz, “The evolution and development of cranial form in Homo sapiens,” PNAS 99 (February 5, 2002), 1134-1139.
    • Human-Chimp DNA comparison update
      • Tatsuya Anzai, Takashi Shiina, et al., “Comparative sequencing of human and chimpanzee MHC class I regions unveils insertions/deletions as the major path to genomic divergence,” PNAS 100 (June 24, 2003), 7708-7713.
      • Kelly A. Frazer, Xiyin Chen, et al., “Genomic DNA Insertions and Deletions Occur Frequently Between Humans and Nonhuman Primates,” Genome Research 13 (2003), 341-346.
    • Oxygenation and the Oceans
      • Matthew T. Hurtgen, “Ancient oceans and oxygen,” Nature 423 (June 5, 2003), 592-593.
      • Yanan Shen, Andrew H. Knoll and Malcolm R. Walter, “Evidence for low sulphate and anoxia in a mid-Proterozoic marine basin,” Nature 423 (June 5, 2003), 632-635.
    • Solving the Globular Cluster Paradox
      • J.L. Turner, S.C. Beck, et al., “An extragalactic supernebula confined by gravity,” Nature 423 (June 5, 2003), 621-623.
  • Call In Questions
    • Bill from Bath, SD: How can I approach my non-scientific pastor with issues related to science and faith?
    • Ian from Santa Clarita, CA: Is the argon-argon dating method reliable to be used on the H. sapiens idaltu (164,000-150,000 years ago)? Why isn’t it used on other specimens in this age range?
    • Joe in North Dakota had some follow up comments to the discussion about the oxygenation and the oceans.
    • Randy in TN: Are fossils being formed today?
  • Email Questions
    • Tony wants to know: Do human embryos gills in their early development? Does that prove Darwinian evolution?
      • For more on this topic, Fuz recommends the book: Icons of Evolution, Jonathan Wells
    • Kevin wants to know: Do humans have a gene for a mouse tail? What is gene expression?
    • Rusty from Anaheim, CA: If there had been observers on the earth before the universe began accelerating, would they have been able to predict the acceleration in the future?
  • Theology/Philosophy segment
    • What does it mean to be human? Response to Discovery Channel documentary, “Walking With Cavemen.”

CU #179
Observational Concessions of Young-Earth Cosmology
Air date: 06-24-03
Hugh Ross, Fuz Rana, and Krista Bontrager

  • Discoveries Discussed
    • Bering Land Bridge Vegetation
      • Grant D. Zazula, et al., "Ice-Age Steppe Vegetation in East Beringia," Nature 423 (June 12, 2003), 603.
      • For further discussion on this topic, see: The Genesis Question, by Hugh Ross
    • Connection between Indian Monsoons and Ice Ages
      • Dominik Fleitmann, et al., "Holocene Forcing of the Indian Monsoon Recorded in a Stalagmite from Southern Oman," Science 300 (2003), 1737-1739.
    • Young-Earth creationist critique of cosmic clock problem
    • Young-Earth creationist critique of neutrino “problem”
      • Rod Bernitt, "Does the new neutrino model ignore helioseismic data and imply a billion-year age for the Sun," TJ: the in-depth journal of creation 17 (no. 1, 2003), 64.
      • For further discussion of this topic, see the following resources:
      • Missing Solar Neutrinos Found, by Hugh Ross
    • Unique human face structure
      • Erik Trinkaus, “Neanderthal faces were not long; modern human faces are short,” PNAS Early Edition (2003).
    • Convergence update
      • Michael F. Whiting, Sven Bradler and Taylor Maxwell, “Loss and recovery of wings in stick insects,” Nature 421 (January 16, 2003), 264-267.
      • Graham Stone and Vernon French, “Evolution: Have Wings Come, Gone and Come Again?” Current Biology 13 (May 27, 2003), R436-R438.
  • Call-In Questions
    • George in Pasadena, CA wanted clarification on Humphreys cosmology.
  • Email Questions
    • Kenny in Milton, FL: Did H. Heidelberg use spears?
    • Joe in Santa Clarita, CA: Why don’t use scientists use mt-DNA methods to study H. erectus and other bi-pedal primates?
    • Reinaldo in Chile: Does Hugh Ross have an opinion to Tipler’s book, Physics of Immortality?
  • Philosophy/Theology Segment
    • Does all truth qualify as “General Revelation”?

Creation Update #180
Complex Altruistic Animal Behavior Challenges Evolution
Air date: 07-01-03
Hugh Ross and Krista Bontrager

  • Discoveries Discussed
    • Small Dispersion of Random Velocities in Local Galaxies — independent confirmation of the cosmological constant
      • Frank Thim, et al., "The Cepheid Distance to NGC 5236 (M83) with the ESO Very Large Telescope," The Astrophysical Journal 590 (2003), 256-270.
      • For further discussion on this topic, see: The Creator and the Cosmos, by Hugh Ross and Journey Toward Creation, 2nd edition.
    • Cluster Baryon Mass Puts Powerful Constraints on Cosmic Creation Models
      • A. Vikhlinin, et al., “Cosmological Constraints from the Evolution of the Cluster Baryon Mass Function at =0.5,” The Astrophysical Journal 590 (2003), 15-25.
    • Complex Altruistic Behavior Challenges Evolution
      • Vittorio Baglione, et al., “Kin Selection in Cooperative Alliances of Carrion Crows,” Science 300 (2003), 1947-1949.
      • Barry Sinervo and Jean Clobert, “Morphs, Dispersal Behavior, Genetic Similarity, and the Evolution of Cooperation,” Science 300 (2003), 1949-1951.
      • Janis L. Dickinson and Walter D. Koenig, “Desperately Seeking Similarity,” Science 300 (2003), 1887-1889.
    • New Technique for Exploring Biochemical Design
      • Friedrich Schotte, et al., “Watching a Protein as it Functions with 150-ps Time-Resolved X-ray Crystallography,” Science 300 (2003), 1944-1946.
  • Call-In Questions
    • Jeff from Valley Forge, PA: Is the speed of light slightly slowing down? If so, what does it mean?
    • Mike from Venice, CA: Does gravity travel faster than the speed of light?
      • For further discussion on this topic, listen to Creation Update on 1-14-03 and the speed of gravity update on 1-28-03.
    • Ron in Kansas City: What “works” are referred to in 1 Corinthians 3:10-15?
    • David from Winston Salem, North Carolina: Do we place science above the Bible?
      • For further discussion on this topic, we recommend our audio series, God’s Two-Part Harmony (coming soon to our Web store).
  • Email Questions
    • Lee, a retired geographer: How does the Bible’s claim that humans originated in Eden square with scientific evidence about the ancient people being the Bushmen from Kalahari?
    • Marty from Redmond, OR: sent in a comment about Humphreys cosmology
  • Theology/Philosophy segment
    • Christian theology of vocation

Creation Update #181
Harry Potter: Open Door to the Occult?
Air date: 07-08-03
Hugh Ross, Fuz Rana and Krista Bontrager
Special Guest: Dr. James Hedges, Professor of Literature at Azusa Pacific University

  • Discoveries Discussed
    • Hypernovae causes for gamma ray bursts
      • K.Z. Stanek, et al., “Spectroscopic Discovery of the Supernova 2003dh Associated with GRB 030329,” Astrophysical Journal Letters 591 (2003), L17-L20.
      • Peter Meszaros, “g-Ray Bursts: The Supernova Connection,” Nature 423 (2003), 809.
      • Makoto Uemura, et al., “Structure in the Early Afterglow Light Curve of the g-Ray Burst of 29 March,” Nature 423 (2003), 843-844.
      • P.A. Price, et al., “The Bright Optical Afterglow of the Nearby g-Ray Burst of 29 March 2003,” Nature 423 (2003), 844-847.
      • Jens Hjorth, et al., “A Very Energetic Supernova Associate with g-Ray Burst of 29 March 2003,” Nature 423 (2003), 847-850.
      • Govert Schilling, “Astronomers Nail Down Origin of Gamma Ray Bursts,” Science 300 (2003), 1860.
    • Evidence for urochordates at the Cambrian Explosion
      • Jun-Yuan Chen, et al., "The first tunicate from the Early Cambrian of South China," PNAS 100 (July 8, 2003), 8314-8318.
    • Squeezars
      • Tal Alexander and Mark Morris, “Squeezars: Tidally Powered Stars Orbiting a Massive Black Hole,” The Astrophysical Journal Letters 590 (June 10, 2003), L25-L28.
    • Evaluation of extra-solar planet candidates for life
  • Call-In Questions
    • Ian in Santa Clarita, CA: Could the reference to a “thousand generations” in Psalm 105 give a rough estimate for how long humans have been on the earth ~50,000 years ago?
    • Darrick in Houston, TX: What age is appropriate to read the Harry Potter books?
  • Email Questions
    • Eric wants to know: Why the scramble for “scientific” underpinnings for Creation. Since creation was, on it most fundamental level, a supreme miracle, don’t we, by trying to explain it scientifically, in some way diminish the wonder and divinity of that miracle?
    • Rob in Boulder, CO: How many pastors do you think have scientific or engineering degrees?
    • Jeff wants Hugh to comment on a book about the possibility of the speed of light being variable.
      • Faster Than the Speed of Light: The Story of a Scientific Speculation, by Joao Magueijo.
  • Philosophy/Theology segment
    • Does Harry Potter provide children with an “open door” to the occult?
      • James Hedges, “Why Read Harry Potter: J.K. Rowling and the Christian Debate,” APU Life (Quarter 1, 2003).
      • Books for further study, recommended by Dr. Hedges:
        • Connie Neal, What’s a Christian to do with Harry Potter?
        • Connie Neal, The Gospel According to Harry Potter

Creation Update #182
Using Time Dilation to Test Cosmological Models
Air date: 07-15-03
Hugh Ross, Fuz Rana and Krista Bontrager

  • Discoveries Discussed
    • Testing time dilation
      • Rong-Feng Shen and Li-Ming Song, “Characteristic Variability Time Scales of Long Gamma-Ray Bursts,” Publications of the Astronomical Society of Japan 55 (April 2003), 345-349.
      • Yi-Ping Qin, et al., “Statistical Properties of the Highest Pulses in Gamma-Ray Bursts,” Chinese Journal of Astronomy and Astrophysics 3 (February 2003), 38-48.
      • Bruno Leibundgut, “Cosmological Implications from Observations of Type Ia Supernovae,” Annual Review of Astronomy and Astrophysics 39 (2001), 67-98.
      • John P. Blakeslee, et al., “Discovery of two distant type Ia supernovae in the Hubble Deep Field-North with the advanced camera for surveys,” The Astrophysical Journal 589 (June 1, 2003), 693-703.
      • Also mentioned: “Big Bang -- The Bible Taught it First!” by Hugh Ross and John Rea
    • Cell membrane design and complexity
    • Voice recognition in fetuses
      • Barbara S. Kisilevsky, “Effects of Experience on Fetal Voice Recognition,” Psychological Science 14 (2003), 220-224.
    • Methuselah planet
      • Steinn Sigurdsson, et al., “A Young White Dwarf Companion to Pulsar B1620-26: Evidence for Early Planet Formation,” Science 301 (2003).
  • Call-In Questions
  • Email Questions
    • Dave in Petaluma, CA: How could a loving God allow animals to suffer for millions of years before Adam’s fall?
    • Rob in Boulder, CO: Can you recommend a book about Shannon Information that are semi-technical?
      • Hubert Yockey, Information Theory and Molecular Biology
      • Bernd-Olaf Küppers, Information and The Origin of Life

Creation Update #183
Chaos for the Descent of Man Hypothesis
Air date: 07-22-03
Hugh Ross, Fuz Rana and Krista Bontrager

  • Discoveries Discussed
    • Origin of humanity phylogenies
      • Camilo J. Cela-Conde and Francisco J. Ayala, “Genera of the Human Lineage,” PNAS 100 (June 24, 2003), 7684-7689.
    • Kenyanthropus update
      • Tim White, “Early Hominids — Diversity or Distortion?” Science 299 (3-28-03), ‘94-‘96
      • Rex Dalton, “Flat-faced Man in Family Feud,” Nature 299 (3-28-03), online edition.
      • For more on RTB’s testable creation model on human origins, we recommend our video series, “Who was Adam?
    • Chloromethane and the Faint Sun Paradox: Botanists discover that chloromethane, a destroyer of stratospheric ozone, is efficiently produced by rotting plants and fungi that are exposed to the atmosphere. Production goes up with the atmospheric temperature. Thus, life’s survival requires efficient burial mechanisms and temperatures that are not too high.
      • John T. G. Hamilton, et al, “Chloride Methylation by Plant Pectin: An Efficient Environmentally Significant Process,” Science, 301 (2003), pp. 206-209.
      • Read Dr. Ross’s article: The Faint Sun Paradox.
    • Clarifying the characteristics of Pop 3 stars: New discoveries clarify the characteristics of the first stars and reveal new cosmic design evidence. The first stars are metal free and very massive. The number of such stars and the episode in which they form must be tightly constrained for galaxies to have the characteristics necessary for future life.
      • Keiichi Wada and Aparna Venkatesan, “Feedback from the First Supernovae in Protogalaxies: The Fate of the Generated Metals,” Astrophys. Jour., 591 (‘03), pp. 38-42.
      • Renyue Cen, “The Implications of Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe Observations for Pop III Star Formation Processes,” Astrophys. Journ. Ltrs, 591 (‘03), pp. L5-L8.
      • Renyue Cen, “The Universe Was Reionized Twice,” Astrophys Journ, 591(‘03),pp.12-37.
    • Star conception and birth: Recent studies of pre-protostellar cores establish that astronomers really are witnessing and understanding the processes leading to the conception and birth of stars. Thus, the young-earth denial of ongoing star formation is refuted.
      • Shih-Ping Lai, et al, “The Physical and Chemical Status of Pre-Protostellar Core B68,” Astronomical Journal, 126 (2003), pp. 311-318.
      • O. Krause, et al, “A Very Young Star Forming Region Detected by the ISOPHOT Serendipity Survey,” Astronomy and Astrophysics, 398 (2003), pp. 1007-1020.
      • Jeong-Eun Lee, et al, “Chemistry and Dynamics in Pre-Protostellar Cores,” Astrophysical Journal, 583 (2003), pp. 789-808.
      • K. Lehtinen, et al, “Far Infrared Observations of Pre-Protostellar Sources in Lynds 183,” Astronomy and Astrophysics, 398 (2003), pp. 571-581.
      • D. Li, P. F. Goldsmith, and K. Menten, “Massive Quiescent Cores in Orion I. Temperature Structure,” Astrophysical Journal, 587 (2003), pp. 262-277.
      • Erik M. Gregersen and Neal J. Evans, II, “How to Identify Pre-Protostellar Cores,” Astrophysical Journal, 538 (2000), pp. 260-267.
  • Call-In Questions
    • Jacob in Chicago, IL: Why aren’t there more specimens for these bi-pedal primates?
    • Mark in Milwaukee, WI: What are virtual particles?
    • Pete from Virginia Beach, VA: Do we know anything about Moses’ education?
  • Boot Camp
    • Who were the “cavemen”?
  • Theology/Philosophy segment
    • Isn’t the Incarnation of Jesus a contradiction?

Creation Update #184
Early Quintessence: Emerging Evidence for a Third Factor Controlling the Expansion Rate of the Universe
Air date: 07-29-03
Hugh Ross, Fuz Rana and Krista Bontrager

  • Discoveries Discussed
    • Early quintessence
      • Robert R. Caldwell, et al., “Early Quintessence in Light of the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe,” The Astrophysical Journal Letters 591 (2003), L75-L78.
      • Listen to our previous show on quintessence: June 17, 2000
    • Minimum Complexity for Life
      • Rosario Gil, et al., “The genome sequence of Blochmannia floridanus: Comparative analysis of reduced genomes,” PNAS 100 (August 5, 2003), 9388-9393.
      • Gyanu Lamichhane, et al., “A postgenomic method for predicting essential genes at subsaturation levels of mutagenesis: Application to Mycobacterium tuberculosis,” PNAS 100 (June 10, 2003), 7213-7218.
      • Craig M. Stephens and Michael T. Laub, “Microbial Genomics: All That You Can’t Leave Behind,” Current Biology 13 (July 15, 2003), R571-R573.
    • New Example of Irreducible Complexity
      • Olaf Nielsen, “COP9 Signalosome: A Provider of DNA Building Blocks,” Current Biology 13 (July 15, 2003), R565-R567.
      • Cong Liu, et al., “Cop9/signalosome subunits and Pcu4 regulate ribonucleotide reductase by both checkpoint-dependent and –independent mechanisms,” Genes & Development 17 (2003), 1130-1140.
      • Ruojin Yao, et al., “Subcellular localization of yeast ribonucleotide reductase regulated by the DNA replication and damage checkpoint pathways,” PNAS 100 (May 27, 2003), 6628-6633.
  • Call-In Questions
    • Bill in South Dakota: How can I convince my pastor that the “appearance of age” argument is wrong? How does quantum tunneling affect electronic components?
    • Mike in Venice, CA: Should the government spend more money on studying asteroids?
    • Mark in Milwaukee, WI: Comment on in Ps. 147:4 where it says that God has numbered and named the stars.
  • Email Questions
    • Pat from Alaska: Isn’t Alpha Centauri A older and more metal-rich than our sun? Doesn’t that contradict what Hugh says about the uniqueness of our sun?
    • Jim from Lusby, MD wanted to take issue with some of Hugh’s statements about quantum mechanics on a recent Message of the Month tape.
  • Boot Camp

Creation Update #185
The Domino Effect of Asteroid Impacts on Mass Extinctions
Air date: 08-05-03
Hugh Ross, Fuz Rana and Krista Bontrager

  • Discoveries Discussed
    • Planetary orbits and Extinction events
      • F. Varadi, B. Runnegar, and M. Ghil, “Successive Refinements in Long-Term Integration of Planetary Orbits,” The Astrophysical Journal 592 (2003), 620-630.
    • Carbon “problem” -- Solved
      • Hans Kepler, Michael Wiedenbeck, and Svyatoslav S. Shcheka, “Carbon Solubility in Olivine and the Mode of Carbon Storage in the Earth’s Mantle,”Nature 424(‘03),414.
      • For more on carbon and extinction events: Rare Earth, by Brownlee and Ward
  • Call-In Questions
    • Jim in Lusby, MD: Had some follow-up comments to the July and August 2003 Message of the Month tapes on quantum mechanics.
      • We want to thank Jim for sending in a response to our July & Aug. 2003 MOM:
        • Analogies are unusually risky when it comes to quantum mechanics, because the listener's mind wants to grasp the simplification as the 'real' reality. One of the greatest scientists of the 20th century, Richard Feynman, claims that no one really understands quantum mechanics. So we are in good company.
        • Nick Herbert's book Quantum Reality (mentioned by Hugh in the M.O.M. tapes) can be misleading because it fails to separate the wheat from the chaff. The chaff in this case are interpretations that are purely pragmatic (what John Gribbin calls "the quantum cookbook" in The Search for Schrodinger's Cat), or are obviously logically fallacious (such as the suggestion that one 'creates' the moon by looking at it). We only care about interpretations that are logically sound & attempt to explain the metaphysics.
        • The philosopher Henry Stapp (not a theist as far as I know) has formulated the best characterization of quantum interpretations. There are only four:
          • No Hidden Variables (universe like a Hollywood stage set; incomplete yet independent of God; the explicit sustainer of Colossians 1:17)
          • Hidden Variables (universe obeys normal cause & effect behind the veil of the uncertainty principle; but not in a common-sense way!)
          • Many Worlds (choice is not definite; every time I try to choose 'A' rather than 'B', another me has chosen 'B' in another universe)
          • Superdeterminism (there is no choice)
        • Of these, options A & B are consistent only with theism. Many Worlds can be formulated as either an atheist or theist theory. Superdeterminism can only be consistent with atheism.
    • James in Garland, TX: Wanted to make a comment about Moses’ source material on Genesis
    • Rob in Denver, CO: Could Genesis 1 and 2 been written as a polemic against the Egyptian gods?
    • Todd in Dallas, TX: Why does the “out-of-Africa” theory pick Africa for the origin of humanity?
  • Email Questions
    • Rusty from Anaheim, CA: My daughter wants to know more about the Christmas star that led the Wise Men. We recommend Dr. Ross’s paper, The Christmas Star.
    • Rusty also wanted to know more about Biola University’s new program in science and religion.
    • Jeffrey wanted to know: What does Dr. Ross think about alien implants? We did a Truth or Fiction segment on this topic a while back. Air-date 12-12-2002.
  • Theology/Philosophy segment
    • Perspectives on the promotion of an openly gay bishop.

Creation Update #186
Biotechnology Update
Air date: 08-12-03
Fuz Rana, Kenneth Samples and Krista Bontrager

  • Discoveries Discussed
    • Multipotent stem cells — Do they exist?
      • Xin Wang, Holger Willenbring, et al., “Cell fusion is the principal source of bone-marrow-derived hepatocytes,” Nature 422 (April 24, 2003), 897-901.
      • George Vassilopoulos, Pei-Rong and David W. Russell, “Transplanted bone marrow regenerates liver by cell fusion,” Nature 422 (April 24, 2003), 901-904.
      • Alexander Medvinsky and Austin Smith, “Fusion brings down barriers,” Nature 422 (April 24, 2003), 823-825.
    • Stem cells from lost baby teeth
      • Masako Miura, et al., “SHED: Stem cells from human exfoliated deciduous teeth,” PNAS USA 100 (May 13, 2003), 5807-5812.
    • Tumorgenic stem cells
      • Kazutoshi Takahashi, Kaoru Mitsui and Shinya Yamanaka, “Role of ERas in promoting tumour-like properties in mouse embryonic stem cells,” Nature 423 (May 29, 2003), 541-545.
    • Xenotransplantation – pig organs in humans
      • Thomas A. Ericsson, et al., “Identification of receptors for pig endogenous retrovirus,” PNAS USA 100 (May 27, 2003), 6759-6764.
    • Genetic screening
      • Helen Pearson, “Sperm screened before injection,” Nature Science Update (August 11, 2003), accessed online.
    • Sexual dimorphism in bi-pedal primates
      • Clark Spencer Larsen, “Equality for the sexes in human evolution? Early hominid sexual dimorphism and implications for mating systems and social behavior,” PNAS USA 100 (August 5, 2003), 9103-9104. Philip L. Reno, Richard S. Meindl, Melanie A. McCollum, and C. Owen Lovejoy, “Sexual dimorphism in Australopithecus afarensis was similar to that of modern humans,” PNAS USA 100 (August 5, 2003), 9404-9409.
    • Sloth — Advances in DNA extraction
      • Hendrik Poinar, Melanie Kuch, Gregory McDonald, Paul Martin and Svante Pååbo, “Nuclear Gene Sequences from a Late Pleistocene Sloth Coprolite,” Current Biology 13 (July 1, 2003), 1150-1152.
  • Call-In Questions
    • Ron in Kansas City: Have any organisms been discovered that don’t have DNA?
    • Keith in Washington: Who was to blame for Jesus’ death?
    • Morgan in TN: Does the Bible really teach “creation ex nihilo”?
  • Email Questions
    • Les in Chester, NH: What are the ethical issues involved in human cloning for reproductive purposes?
    • Rob wanted to know: What resources can you recommend about Egyptian culture around the time of the Exodus? A listener suggested a couple of magazines that may be of interest: Biblical Archeology Review and Archeological Odyssey.

Creation Update #187
Distinguishing Features of Oort Cloud Comets
Air date: 08-19-03
Hugh Ross, Fuz Rana and Krista Bontrager

  • Discoveries Discussed
    • Putting the “6 degrees of separation” theory to the test
      • Peter Sheridan Dodds, Roby Muhamad, and Duncan J. Watts, “An Experimental Study of Search in Global Social Networks,” Science 301 (2003), 827-829.
      • Mark Granovetter, “Ignorance, Knowledge, and Outcomes in a Small World,” Science 301 (2003), 771-772.
    • Comets in the Oort Cloud and Kuiper Belt
      • S. Alan Stern, “The Evolution of Comets in the Oort Cloud and Kuiper Belt,” Nature 424 (2003), 639-642.
      • Luke Dones, “Simulations of the Formation of the Oort Cloud,” submitted to Icarus (‘03).
    • Minimum genome size for photosynthetic bacteria
      • Alexis Dufresne, et al., “Genome Sequence of the Cyanobacterium Prochlorococcus marinus SS120, A Nearly Minimal Oxyphototrophic Genome,” PNAS, USA 100(2003), 10020-10025.
    • Donald A. Bryant, “The Beauty in Small Things Revealed,” PNAS, USA 100(2003), 9647-9649.
  • Call-In Questions
    • Bill in Bath, SD: Could Hugh talk more about his idea regarding the physics of sin?
      • We did a lengthy discussion about the physics of sin on a previous episode of Creation Update (airdate 06-04-02).
      • Also mentioned: The Physics of Sin, by Hugh Ross and Beyond the Cosmos, by Hugh Ross
    • Allen in LaPuente, CA: What is the significance of black holes for the design of galaxies?
    • Morgan in TN wanted to ask Hugh’s opinion of the book, Noah's Flood: The New Scientific Discoveries About the Event That Changed History. He also wanted to ask about the “leviathan” mentioned in Job.
    • Chris in North Carolina: Are human “tails” evidence for evolution?
    • Ben in Nashville, TN: What do Ken and Hugh think about “preterism”?
      • Books mentioned:
        • The Last Days According to Jesus, by R.C. Sproul
        • A Commentary on the Revelation of John, by G.E. Ladd
        • A Case for Amillenialism, by Kim Riddlebarger
    • Todd in Dallas, TX: What kinds of tools did pre-human hominids use?
      • We talked extensively about this discovery on a previous episode of Creation Update (airdate 01-15-2002).
      • Christopher S. Henshilwood et al., "Emergence of Modern Human Behavior: Middle Stone Age Engravings from South Africa," Science Express (2002).
      • Christopher S. Henshilwood et al., "An Early Bone Tool Industry from the Middle Stone Age at Blombos Cave, South Africa: Implications for the Origins of Modern Human Behavior, Symbolism and Language," Journal of Human Evolution 41 (2001), 631-678.
  • Email Questions
    • William wanted to know: Were there seasons before the fall of man?
    • Kenny in Milton, FL sent in some follow up comments about the “leviathan” in Job 40.

Creation Update #188
Optimal Period for Viewing Mars
Air date: 8-26-03
Hugh Ross, Fuz Rana, Kenneth Samples, and Joe Aguirre

  • Discoveries Discussed
    • Implications of Mars' Proximity to Earth
      • Joanne Baker, "All Eyes On Red Planet," Nature Science Update (8-26-03)
      • Hugh Ross, "Life on Mars as Proof of Evolution?" Facts & Faith vol. 2, no. 3 (Fall 1988).
    • Explanation for Human Tails
      • Dao AH, Netsky MG, "Human Tails and Pseudotails" (Abstract), NCBI 1984 May 15 (5): 449-53.
      • Ronald A. Bergman et al., "Persistence of the Tail," Virtual Hospital.
  • Philosophical/Theological Segment
    • Do apologetic arguments alone create faith?
  • E-mail Question
    • Fred asks: Does a recent study on horse species provide fossil evidence for transitional forms?
  • Call-in Questions
    • Jeff from Pennsylvania asks: What are theistic implications for multiverse theory?
      • Resource: Creator and the Cosmos, 3d ed., by Hugh Ross
    • Bill from South Dakota asks: Why would God call for animal sacrifice immediately after the Fall if there was no animal death before the Fall?
    • Matt from Atlanta: What are the geochronometers D. James Kennedy uses for his position on the age of the earth?
      • Resource: Creation and Time, by Hugh Ross
    • Ian from Southern California asks: How do you reconcile bronze/iron ages with biblical chronology (Tubal-Cain in Genesis 4 said to be forger of bronze/iron tools)? He also comments on death before the Fall.
    • Mike from Beaverton, OR, asks: Does scientific evidence lead to a better case for evolution or creation?
    • Jeff from Portland has a comment/question on why compelling evidence doesn't cause some people to place faith in the character of the God of the Bible.
    • Chris from North Carolina asks a follow-up question on human tails.

Creation Update #189
Gamma-Ray Bursts Allow Look at Early Universe
Air date: 9-2-03
Hugh Ross, Fuz Rana, Kenneth Samples, and Joe Aguirre

Creation Update #190
Function for "Junk" DNA Debunks Imperfection Argument
Air date: 9-9-03
Fuz Rana, Kenneth Samples, and Joe Aguirre

  • Discoveries Discussed
    • Three Studies Affirm Conservation and Function of "Junk" DNA
      • Clare Lynch and Michael Tristem, "A Co-opted gypsy-type LTR-Retrotransposon Is Conserved in the Genomes of Humans, Sheep, Mice, and Rats," Current Biology, vol 13 (Sept 2, 2003), 1518-23.
      • J.W. Thomas et al., "Comparative analyses of multi-species sequences from targeted genomic regions," Nature 424 (14 Aug 2003), Letters, 788-93.
      • Matthew P. Hare and Stephen R. Palumbi, "High Intron Sequence Conservation Across Three Mammalian Orders Suggests Functional Constraints," Molecular Biology and Evolution 20 (6), 969-78.
    • Gene Expression Analysis in Humans and Apes Shows Differences
      • Mazen W. Karaman et al., "Comparative Analysis of Gene-Expression Patterns in Human and African Great Ape Cultured Fibroblasts," Genome Research 13 (2003), 1619-30.
    • Frequency of Martian Tornados Demonstrates Earth's Just-Right Position
      • Matthew R. Balme, Patrick L. Whelley, and Ronald Greeley, “Mars: Dust Devil Track Survey in Argyre Planitia and Hellas Basin," Journal of Geophysical Research 108 (E8), 5086, doi:10.1029/2003JE002096, 2003.
      • Anthony D. Toigo et al., “Numerical Simulation of Martian Dust Devils,” Journal of Geophysical Research 108 (E6), 5047, doi:10.1029/2002JE002002, 2003.
      • Ronald Greeley et al., “Martian Dust Devils: Laboratory Simulations of Particle Threshold,” Journal of Geophysical Research 108 (E5), 5041, doi:10.1029/2002JE001987, 2003.
      • Conway B. Leovy, “The Devil Is in the Dust,” Nature 424 (2003), 1008-09.
    • Resources
  • Philosophical/Theological Segment
  • Call-in Questions
    • Daniel from Houston asks: Could Earth be millions (not billions) of years old?
    • Bill from S. Dakota asks: Can you define falsifiability?
    • Morgan from TN asks: Was Adam created to be vegetarian?
      • Resource: Life and Death in Eden
    • Mark from Milwaukee asks: Is Mars perihelion evidence for design?

Creation Update #191
Lion-Man Statue: Evidence for Human Imagination
Air date: 09-16-03
Fuz Rana, Kenneth Samples, and Krista Bontrager

  • Discoveries Discussed
    • Lion man statue takes its place as the oldest statue
    • Worm resistance to metals
      • Jeffrey S. Levinton et al., “Rapid Loss of Genetically Based Resistance to Metals after the Cleanup of a Superfund Site,” PNAS, USA 100 (2003), 9889-9891.
    • Optimality of DNA replication
      • Manel Camps et al., “Targeted gene evolution in Escherichia coli using a highly error-prone DNA polymerase I,” PNAS, USA 100 (2003), 9727-9732.
  • Call-In Questions
    • Eric in Texas: What is “fine-tuning” in a biological sense?
    • Todd in Dallas, TX: Does Jesus’s atonement include the physical universe?
    • Rob in Denver, CO: Can you compare the number of steps between the prebiotic routes and the biochemical routes?
  • Theology/Philosophy Segment: Responding to “Modernism”
    • Millard Erickson, Christian Theology
    • Gene Veith, Post-Modern Times
    • George Marsden, Understanding Fundamentalism and Evangelicalism

Primetime #7
Primetime: Radiometric Dating Methods and the RATE Study
Air date: 09-18-03
Hugh Ross, Fuz Rana, and Krista Bontrager
Special Guest: Geochemist, Dr. Roger Wiens

  • Related Papers and Programs
    • Uranium Decay in Ancient Stars -- Another Confirmation for an Ancient Universe (air-date: 02-24-2001)
    • Stars with uranium and thorium - refining radiometric dating methods (air-date: 11-26-2002)
    • Discussion of zircons (air-date: 02-05-2002)
    • The Dynamics of Dating, by Roger Wiens
    • Radiometric Dating: A Christian Perspective, by Roger Wiens
    • 2003 papers from the RATE study
    • Announcement of the recent RATE research on the Answers in Genesis web site
    • For more on radiometric dating, call our office and ask about the November/December editions of the 2003 Message of the Month program where our scholars discuss this topic in more detail.

Creation Update #192
Hezekiah’s Tunnel: Another Confirmation of the Bible’s Historical Accuracy
Air date: 09-23-03
Hugh Ross, Fuz Rana, and Krista Bontrager

  • Discoveries Discussed
    • Hezekiah’s tunnel
    • Did the universe come from a black hole?
      • Joel Smoller and Blake Temple, “Shock-wave cosmology inside a black hole,” PNAS online (September 12, 2003).
      • Joel Smoller and Blake Temple, “Shock-wave Cosmology Inside a Black Hole,” pre-print (October 17, 2002).
      • Joel Smoller and Blake Temple, “Cosmology, Black Holes and Shock Waves Beyond the Hubble Length,” pre-print (December 18, 2002).
    • Recent developments in young-earth cosmology
  • Call-In Questions
    • Mark in Milwaukee, WI: Have you heard of a book called, Fashionable Nonsense: Postmodern Intellectuals' Abuse of Science, by Alan D. Sokal and Jean Bricmont?
    • Joel in Bismark, ND: If the rate of decay of uranium was high on Creation Days 1 and 2, then how could the earth have cooled off within 24 hours to facilitate plant life on Day 3?
    • Jim in Lusby, MD: Wanted to ask a follow up question to the September 2003 Message of the Month about the multi-universe theory.
      • Book mentioned by caller: Universes, by John Leslie
    • Randy in TN: Wanted to clarify a point from the Primetime episode about radiometric dating.
    • Steve in Camarillo, CA: What is Mark 13:24 referring to when it says that the sun was darkened?
  • Email Questions
    • Tim in Japan: How much argon would be able to escape an igneous rock into the atmosphere?
      • For more on radiometric dating, see the Show Notes from our Primetime broadcast with Roger Wiens (09-18-2003).
    • Damien in Sydney, Australia: Could you please explain how isochron calibration works? Can it be used as an argument for the reliability of radiometric dating?
  • Theology/Philosophy segment
    • What is post-modernism?
      • Post-Modern Times, by Gene Veith

Creation Update #193
Human Migration Into North America
Air date: 09-30-03
Fuz Rana, Kenneth Samples and Krista Bontrager

  • Discoveries Discussed
    • Early Human Migration vs. the Bible and the Book of Mormon
      • “Archaeological Find Provides Insight Into Northeast 9,000 Years Ago,”
      • Rolando Gonzales-Jose et al., “Craniometric Evidence for Paleoamerican Survival in Baja California,” Nature 425 (2003), 62-65.
      • Tom D. Dillehay, “Tracking the First Americans,” Nature 425(2003), 23-24.
      • Charles S. Spencer, “War and early state formation in Oaxaca, Mexico,” PNAS 100 (September 30, 2003), 11185-11187.
      • Kent V. Flannery and Joyce Marcus, “The origin of war: New 14C dates from ancient Mexico,” PNAS 100 (September 30, 2003), 11801-11805.
      • For more on the biblical account of early human migration, see The Genesis Question, by Hugh Ross
      • Also mentioned: Who is the Designer? 2003 conference audio tapes
    • Biotechnology Update
      • Peter Mombaerts, “Therapeutic Cloning in the Mouse,” PNAS, USA 100 (2003), early edition.
      • Erika Check, “Parkinson’s Transplant Therapy Faces Setback,” Nature Science Update.
      • For more information on biotechnology, check out these resources:
  • Call-In Questions
  • Email Questions
    • Andy wanted Fuz to comment on a recent find in a Romanian cave that is being touted as support for the idea that Neanderthals and modern humans interbred.

Creation Update #194
Biblical Defense of Death before the Fall
Air date: 10-07-03
Hugh Ross, Fuz Rana, Kenneth Samples and Krista Bontrager
Special Guest: Rev. Lee Irons

  • Discoveries Discussed
    • Age/Metalicity Relationship — test for the big bang model
      • Jason X. Prochaska et al., “The Age-Metalicity Relation of the Universe in Neutral Gas: The First 100 Damped Lya Systems,” The Astrophysical Journal 595 (2003), L9-L12.
      • Book mentioned: The Echo of the Big Bang
    • Astrobiologydebate
      • C.H. Lineweaver and T.M. Davis, “Does the rapid appearance of life on Earth suggest that life is common in the Universe?” Astrobiology 2 (2002), 292-304.
      • V.V. Flambaum, “Comment on ‘Does the Rapid Appearance of Life on Earth Suggest that Life is Common in the Universe?’” Astrobiology 3 (2003), 237-239.
      • Charles H. Lineweaver and Tamara M. Davis, “On the Nonobservability of Recent Biogenesis,” Astrobiology 3 (2003), 241-243.
  • Call-In Questions
    • Rob in Boulder, CO: Heard Robert Shapiro say that there is no evidence for organic phosphates. Is that true?
  • Email Questions
    • Van Michael in Nashville, TN: Is there any biblical basis for believing that there are gaps in the biblical genealogies?
  • Theology segment

Creation Update #195
General Relativity: The Most Theologically Significant Theorems Ever Discovered?
Air date: 10-14-03
Hugh Ross, Fuz Rana, and Krista Bontrager

  • Discoveries Discussed
    • Another Confirmation of General Relativity — light deflection
      • B. Bertotti, L Iess, and P. Tortora, “A Test of General Relativity Using Radio Links with the Cassini Spacecraft,” Nature 425 (2003), 374-376.
    • Decimation of the killer whale ecosystem and a Christian perspective on environmentalism
      • A.M. Springer et al, “Sequential Megafaunal Collapse in the North Pacific Ocean: An Ongoing Legacy of Industrial Whaling,” PNAS, USA 100 (2003), 12223-12228.
    • Retro-viruses -- “junk” DNA update
      • Theodora Hatziioannou, et al, “Restriction of multiple divergent retroviruses by Lv1 and Ref1,” The EMBO Journal 22 (2003), 385-394.
      • Clare Lynch and Michael Tristem, “A Co-opted gypsy-type LTR-Retrotransposon Is Conserved in the Genonmes of Humans, Sheep, Mice and Rats,” Current Biology 13 (2003), 1518-1523.
      • Catherine A. Dunn, Patrik Medstrand, and Dixie L. Mager, “An endogenous retroviral long terminal repeat is the dominant promoter for human B1,3-galactosyltransferase 5 in the colon,” PNAS Early Edition (2003).
      • Vera Schramke and Robin Allshire, “Hairpin RNAs and Retrotransposon LTRs Effect RNAi and Chromatin-Based Gene Silencing,” Science 301 (August 22, 2003), 1069-1074.
  • Call-In Questions
    • Sam in Los Angeles, CA: How do scientists know what the decay rate of radiometric elements are?
      • Randy in Collierville, TN: Do old-earth creationists also have problems with the speed of light?
      • Chris in North Carolina: What is the “firmament” (KJV) in Genesis 1:15?
      • Robert Newman’s thesis on the 2nd creation day: (Catalog #N11) Robert C. Newman, The Biblical Firmament: Vault or Vapor? IBRI, 2000. $7.95. ISBN 0-944788-80-7.
    • Marj, one of our RTB staff members: What makes something as “living” vs. “non-living”?

Creation Update #196
Is the universe the shape of a soccer ball?
Air date: 10-21-03
Hugh Ross, Fuz Rana, and Krista Bontrager

  • Discoveries Discussed
    • A new model for the shape of the universe — a dodecahedron?
      • Jean-Pierre Luminet et al, “Dodecahedral Space Topology as an Explanation for Weak-Angle Temperature Correlations in the Cosmic Microwave Background,” Nature 425 (2003), 593-595.
      • George F.R. Ellis, “Shape of the Universe,” Nature 425 (2003), 566-567.
      • Charles Seife, “Polyhedral Model Gives the Universe an Unexpected Twist,” Science 302 (2003), 209.
      • Neil J. Cornish et al, “Constraining the Topology of the Universe,” astro-ph/0310233, submitted to Physical Review Letters, 2003.
      • Also mentioned: Early Quintessence: Emerging Evidence for a Third Factor Controlling the Expansion Rate of the Universe, Creation Update, July 29, 2003.
      • More papers in Hugh’s stack related to this discussion:
        • Carlo R. Contaldi et al, “Suppressing the lower multipoles in the CMB anisotropies,” Journal of Cosmology and Astroparticle Physics, Issue 7 (2003), 2.
        • James M. Cline, et al, “Does the small CMB quadrupole moment
        • suggest new physics,” Journal of Cosmology and Astroparticle Physics, Issue 9 (2003), 10.
        • G. Efstathiou, “Is the low cosmic microwave background quadrupole a signature of spatial curvature?” Monthly Notice of the Royal Astronomical Society 343 (August 2003), L95-L98.
    • Mapping budding yeast cells
      • W.K. et al, “Global Analysis of Protein Localization in Budding Yeast,” Nature 425 (2003), 686-691.
      • S. Ghaemmaghami et al, “Global Analysis of Protein Expression in Yeast,” Nature 425 (2003), 737-741.
      • James A. Wohischlegel and John R. Yates, “Where’s Waldo in Yeast?” Nature 425 (2003), 671-672.
    • Life’s minimum complexity — archaeal parasite
      • Elizabeth Waters et al., “The Genome of Nanoarchaeum equitans: Insight into Early Archaeal Evolution and Derived Parasitism,” PNAS, USA 100 (2003), 12984-12988.
  • Call-In Questions
    • Eric in Waxahachie, TX: When will the theory of Relativity be considered a “fact”?
    • Doug in Germantown, Maryland: Why did God make dinosaurs?
    • Dave in Seattle, WA: Where was the Garden of Eden? What does RTB think of the Discovery Channel documentary called, The Real Eve.
      • Hear our discussion of The Real Eve on the Creation Update, April 4, 2002 broadcast.
    • Dave in LA, CA: What are the “pillars of heaven” referred to in Job 26:11?
      • Stuart and Fee, How to Read the Bible for All Its Worth
  • Email Questions
    • Bob in Portland, OR: Exaggeration on the confirmation of the theory of Relativity?
  • Theology/Philosophy Segment
    • Approaches to apologetics
      • 5 Views on Apologetics, ed. Steven B. Cowen

Creation Update #197
Genetic Deserts: An Answer to the “God of the Gaps” Objection
Air date: 10-28-03
Hugh Ross, Fuz Rana, and Krista Bontrager

  • Discoveries Discussed
    • Dwarf spiral galaxies
      • Alister W. Graham, Helmut Jerjen, and Rafael Guzman, “Hubble Space Telescope Detection of Spiral Structure in Two Coma Cluster Dwarf Galaxies,” Astronomical Journal 126 (2003), 1787-1793.
    • Sloan Digital Sky Survey
      • Kevorek Abazajian et al., “The First Data Release of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey,” Astronomical Journal 126 (2003), 2081-2086.
    • Gene deserts — junk DNA
      • Marcelo A. Nobrega et al., “Scanning Human Gene Deserts for Long-Range Enhancers,” Science 302 (2003), 413.
  • Call-In Questions
    • Joe in Bismark, ND: Had a follow-up question to last week’s discussion of the universe being in the shape of a dodecahedron.
    • Steve in Modesto, CA: Is the universe expanding everywhere at a homogeneous rate? How do astronomers calculate the existence of extra-solar planets?
    • Kenny in Milton, FL: Had some follow-up questions about relativity based on our recent show.
      • David in Los Angeles, CA: Origin of the races?
    • The Genesis Question, by Hugh Ross
    • Chris in North Carolina: Wouldn’t evidence for the primordial soup have been lost in the recycling of the earth’s crust?
  • Theology/Philosophy Segment: Ken’s perspective on Halloween
  • Also mentioned: The Elegant Universe, documentary airing on PBS.

Creation Update #198
James Ossuary Box: Genuine or Fraud?
Air date: 11-04-03
Hugh Ross, Fuz Rana, and Krista Bontrager
with special guest, Ben Witherington

  • Discoveries Discussed
    • Electrical charge used in DNA Repair — Watchmaker argument
      • Elizabeth M. Boon et al., “DNA-Mediated Charge Transport for DNA Repair,” PNAS, USA 100 (2003), 13235-13240.
    • Future of the universe
      • Michael T. Busha et al., “Future Evolution of Cosmic Structure in an Accelerating Universe, “Astrophysical Journal 596 (2003), 713-726.
  • Call-In Questions
    • Oren in Bossier City, LA: Could we still be in the 6th creation day?
    • Wayne in Dallas, TX: According to the evolutionary model, what did our last common ancestor with chimps look like?
      • The Leap to Two Feet, by Fuz Rana
    • Steve in Modesto, CA: Is “string theory” just mathematical and not actual?
      • Beyond the Cosmos, by Hugh Ross
      • The Elegant Universe, by Brian Greene
      • Also mentioned, PBS’s special, The Elegant Universe with Brian Greene
    • Ian in Santa Clarita, CA: Could the “lion man” statue help us date Noah’s flood?
      • Lion-Man Statue: Evidence for Human Imagination, Creation Update, air-date: 09-16-03
    • Chris in Charlotte, NC: Can amino acids form in space?
  • Email Questions
    • Does the earth receive 90% of its cosmic rays from the Vela Supernova?
      • The Genesis Question, pp. 120-123.
      • Peter L. Biermann, “Astrophysics: Not-so-cosmic rays,” Nature 388 (03 Jul 1997), 24-25.
      • A. Erlykin and A. Wolfendale, “High Energy Cosmic Ray Spectroscopy: I. Status and Prospects,” Astroparticle Physics 7 (1997), 1-13.
    • Why do you have to take “breaks” during the show? It’s only a webcast.
    • Would the Vela Supernova affect carbon 14 dating techniques?
  • Ben Witherington, professor of New Testament at Asbury Theological Seminary
    • The Brother of Jesus: The Dramatic Story & Meaning of the First Archeological Link to Jesus and His Family, by Hershal Shanks and Ben Witherington (available through

Creation Update #199
Replication of Life-Detection Experiments of the Viking Mission
Air date: 11-11-03
Hugh Ross, Fuz Rana, and Krista Bontrager

  • Discoveries Discussed
    • Replication of life-detection experiments of the Viking Mission (1976) to Mars
      • Rafael Navarro-Gonzalez, et al., “Mars-Like Soils in the Atacama Desert, Chile, and the Dry Limit of Microbial Life,” Science 302 (2003), 1018-1021.
      • Also mentioned:
        • Allan H. Treiman, “Submicron Magnetite Grains and Carbon Compounds in Martian meteorite ALH84001: Inorganic, Abiotic Formation by Shock and Thermal Metamorphism,” Astrobiology 3 (2003), 369-392.
        • Evolution: A Theory in Crisis, by Michael Denton
      • More about the upcoming Martian missions: JPL web site
    • Analysis of the first data release of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey
      • M. Tegmark, et al, “Cosmological Parameters from SDSS and WMAP,” preprint (2003).
      • Charles Seife, “Galaxy Maps Support Theory that the Universe is Flying to Pieces,” Science 302 (October 31, 2003), 762-763.
    • Another independent confirmation of the cosmic density
      • H. Feldman, et al, “An Estimate of ‡m Without Conventional Priors,” Astrophysical Journal Letters 596 (2003), L131-L134.
  • Call-In Questions
    • Joel in Bismark, ND: Wanted to ask some follow-up questions about the Martian experiments
    • Chris in Charlotte, NC: Is Genesis 1 scientifically accurate or a borrowed Mediterranean myth?
  • Email Questions
    • Ven wanted to know: Has Matthew 24:29 already been fulfilled?
    • Damien from Sydney, Australia: What books can you recommend on geophysics and the cell?
      • Travels to the Nanoworld, by Michael Gross
    • Kenny wanted us to comment on a couple of recent science news stories.
    • Dennis wanted to know our comments on some supposed “errors” in radiometric dating methods.
  • Theological/Philosophical Segment
    • The doctrine of creation ex nihilo

Creation Update #200
Baryon Update: Another Confirmation of the “Big Bang” Creation Event
Air date: 11-18-03
Hugh Ross, Fuz Rana, and Krista Bontrager

  • Discoveries Discussed
    • Possible climatic cause for the Pleistocene extinction
      • R. Dale Guthrie, “Rapid Body Size Decline in Alaskan Pleistocene Horses Before Extinction,” Nature 426 (2003), 169-171.
    • Minimum complexity for life update
      • Eugene V. Koonin, “Comparative Genomics, Minimal Gene-Sets and the Last Universal Common,” Nature Reviews 1 (November 2003), 127-136.
      • S.Y. Gerdes, et al., “Experimental Determination and System Level analysis of Essential Genes in Escherichia coli MG 1655,” Journal of Bacteriology 185 (October 2003), 5673-5684.
      • Michael A. Jacobs, “Comprehensive transposon mutant library of Pseudomonas aeruginosa,” Journal of Bacteriology 185 (October 2003), 5673-5684.
    • More precise measurement of cosmic baryon density
      • David Kirkman, et al., “The Cosmological Baryon Density from the Deuterium-to-Hydrogen Ratio in QSO Absorption Systems: D/H toward Q12343+3047,” Astrophysical Journal Supplement 149 (2003), 1-28.
      • "Missing" Baryons Found, Creation Update (air-date: 2-25-2003)
  • Call-In Questions
    • William in Vernon, IN: Is there scientific evidence for life after death? Is the physical body all there is?
      • Scaling the Secular City, by J.P. Moreland
      • Beyond Death: Exploring the Evidence for Immortality, by J.P. Moreland and Gary Habermas
      • Shadows of the Mind, by Roger Penrose
    • What is the difference between predestination and foreknowledge?
      • Chosen by God, by R.C. Sproul
      • Beyond the Bounds: Open Theism and the Undermining of Biblical Christianity, edited by John Piper, Justin Taylor and Paul Helseth
    • Chris in Charlotte, NC: What are “molecular clocks”?
  • Philosophy/Theology segment
    • Why do people believe in conspiracy theories?

Creation Update #201
Thanksgiving Discovery-Palooza
Air-date: 11-25-2003
Hugh Ross, Fuz Rana and Krista Bontrager

  • Discoveries Discussed
    • Punctuated Equilibrium
      • Goncalo Ferraz, et al., "Rates of species loss from Amazonian forest fragments," PNAS 100 (2003), 14069-14073.
      • Norbert J. Cordeiro and Henry F. Howe, "Forest fragmentation severs mutualism between seed dispersers and an endemic African tree," PNAS 100 (2003), 14052-14056.
    • Meteorite fragments in Antarctica
      • Asish R. Basu, et al., “Chondritic Meteorite Fragments Associated with the Permian-Triassic Boundary in Antarctica,” Science (2003), 1388-1392.
    • Solar system design — fine-tuning mass of gas giants
      • Edward W. Thommes and Jack J. Lissauer, “Resonant Inclination Excitation of Migrating Giant Planets,” Astrophysical Journal 597 (2003), 566-580.
    • Biodiversity — Why did God make dinosaurs?
      • Michel Loreau, Nicolas Mouquet and Andrew Gonzalez, "Biodiversity as spatial insurance in heterogeneous landscapes," PNAS 100 (2003), 12765-12770.
    • Evidence against a “warm and wet” Mars
      • Todd M. Hoefen, et al., “Discovery of Olivine in the Nili Fossae Region of Mars,” Science 302 (2003), 627-630.
    • Genetic similarities between human and chimp DNA
      • Mario Caceres, et al., “Elevated gene expression levels distinguish human from non-human primate brains,” PNAS 100 (2003), 13030-13035.
  • Call-In Questions
    • Doug in Germantown, MD: Had a programming suggestion for Creation Update; What are the top 3 things people should remember as evidence against biological evolution?
    • Mike in Columbus, IN: Have you responded to the accusations made by the ICR regarding the atonement?
    • Randy in Collierville, TN: What are Euler’s equations and what do they tell us about string theory?
      • The Elegant Universe, by Brian Greene
    • Chris in Charlotte, NC: According to molecular clock analysis, humans diverged from primates 5,000,000 years ago. What is RTB’s position for the date of the first humans?
    • Joe in Bismark,ND: Comment on Hugh’s discovery about olivine
  • Email Questions
    • Jeff in Tacoma, WA: Could an artificially designed protein be evidence for Intelligent Design?

Creation Update #202
Petroleum Design
Air-date: 12-02-2003
Hugh Ross, Fuz Rana and Krista Bontrager

  • Discoveries Discussed
    • Petroleum Design
      • J.S. Seewald, "Organic-Inorganic Interactions in Petroleum-Producing Sedimentary Basins," Nature 426 (2003), 327-333.
      • I.M. Head, D.M. Jones and S.R. Larter, “Biological Activity in the Deep Subsurface and the Origin of Heavy Oil,” Nature 426 (2003), 344-352.
      • N. White, M. Thompson and T. Barwise, “Understanding the Thermal Evolution of Deep-Water Continental Margins,” Nature 426 (2003), 334-343.
    • Biochemical design — enzyme in charge of quality control
      • Markus Eser and Michael Ehrmann, “SecA-dependent quality control of intracellular protein localization,” PNAS 100 (November 11, 2003), 13231-13234.
      • Beyond Irreducible Complexity, by Fazale “Fuz” Rana
  • Call-In Questions
    • Rob in Denver, CO: Had some questions about Robert Shapiro’s statements about origin of life problems.
    • Dave in Los Angeles, CA: Aren’t evolutionists being kind of premature in their assessment of the similarities between the human and chimp genomes?
    • Chris in Charlotte, NC: What does 2 Peter 3:5 mean when it talks about the earth being created out of water?
  • Theology/Philosophy segment
    • Biblical support for God’s provision of optimal environments for His creatures
      • Inquires about RTB’s Science and Evangelism Correspondence course and the volunteer apologists’ program — Bob Stuart
      • Inquiries about chapter efforts around the world — Ken Hultgren

Creation Update #203
Advances in Organ Transplant Technology Provide Workable Alternative to Human Cloning
Air-date: 12-09-2003
Hugh Ross, Fuz Rana and Krista Bontrager

  • Discoveries Discussed
    • Xenotransplantation — use of pig organs in humans
      • Helen Pearson, “Engineered Pig Organs Survive in Monkeys,” Nature Science Update (December 8, 2003).
    • Solar system design — Kuiper Belt design
      • Harold F. Levison and Alessandro Morbidelli, “The Formation of the Kuiper Belt by the Outward Transport of Bodies During Neptune’s Migration,” Nature 426 (2003), 419-421.
      • Rodney Gomes, “Conveyed to the Kuiper Belt,”Nature426(2003),393-5
      • Robert Roy Britt, “Solar System that Neptune Built,” (accessed 12-09-2003).
    • Convergence update — toxic frogs
      • Kyle Summers, “Convergent evolution of bright coloration and toxicity in frogs,” PNAS 100 (October 28, 2003), 12533-12534.
      • Juan Carlos Santos, Luis A. Coloma, and David C. Cannatella, “Multiple, recurring origins of aposematism and diet specialization in poison frogs,” PNAS 100 (October 28, 2003), 12792-12797.
    • Stasis in the fossil record
      • David J. Siveter, et al, “An Ostracode Crustacean with Soft Parts from the Lower Silurian,” Science 302 (December 5, 2003), 1749-1751.
      • Erik Stokstad, “Gutsy Fossil Sets Record for Staying the Course,” Science 302 (2003), 1645.
      • Sean G. Brady, “Evolution of the army ant syndrome: The origin and long-term evolutionary stasis of a complex of behavioral and reproductive adaptations,” PNAS 100 (May 27, 2003), 6575-6579.
      • Stefanie M. Berghoff, “Army Ants: An Evolutionary Bestsellar?” Current Biology 13 (2003), R676-R677.
      • Frederic Delsuc, “Army Ants Trapped by Their Evolutionary History,” PLoS Biology 1 (2003), 155-156.
    • Decay in cold, dark matter?
      • Masamune Orguri, et al., “Decaying Cold Dark Matter and the Evolution of the Cluster Abundance,” Astrophysical Journal 597 (2003), 645-649.
  • Error Correction to The Genesis Question, by Hugh Ross
    • Also mentioned: Today’s New Reason To Believe – Thursday, November 20, 2003; R. Dodson, et al, “The Vela Pulsar’s Proper Motion and Parallax Derived from VLBI Observations,” Astrophysical Journal 596 (2003), 1137-1141.
  • Call-In Questions
    • Pete in Virginia Beach, VA: Could cosmic rays and cloud formation be an influence on Noah’s flood?
    • Chris in Charlotte, NC: What does the Bible mean when it says that the earth is resting on “pillars”?
      • How to Read the Bible for All Its Worth, Stuart & Fee
  • Email Questions
    • Vince in Newark, Delaware: If Darwinian evolution is false, then what would be the alternative?
    • Tim wants to know: Doesn’t Genesis 2:5-9 teach that humans were created before plants and animals?

Creation Update #204
Neanderthal Brain Structures: Evidence for the Uniqueness of Modern Humans
Air-date: 12-16-2003
Hugh Ross, Fuz Rana and Krista Bontrager

  • Discoveries Discussed
    • Neanderthal brain structure
      • Emiliano Bruner et al., “Encephalization and Allometric Trajectories in the genus Homo: Evidence from the Neandertal and Modern Lineages,” PNAS, USA 100 (2003), 15335-15340.
    • Human/chimp DNA comparisons
      • Andrew G. Clark et al., “Inferring Nonneutral Evolution from Human-Chimp-Mouse Orthologous Gene Trios,” Science 302 (2003), 1960-1963.
        Elizabeth Pennisi, “Genome Comparisons Hold Clues,” Science 302 (2003), 1876-1877.
    • Protein interaction map of fruit flies
      • L. Giot et al., “A Protein Interaction Map of Drosophila melanogaster,” Science 302 (2003), 1727-1736.
    • Dipole confirmation
      • Ariyeh H. Maller, et al., “The Clustering Dipole of the Local Universe from the Two Micron All-Sky Survey,” Astrophysical Journal Letters 598 (2003), L1-L5.
      • Previously discussed on Creation Update, 04-02-2003
      • See also: Big Bang Stands Firm, by Hugh Ross and The Big Bang - The Bible Taught it First! by Hugh Ross and John Rea
  • Call In Questions
    • Chris in Charlotte, NC: Does Genesis 1:30 teach that all animals were vegetarians before Adam’s Fall?
    • David in Winston Salem, NC: How is it possible that galaxies could eventually travel faster than the speed of light? If everything in the universe is expanding, wouldn’t our tools for measurement also be expanding?
    • Peter in Virginia Beach, VA:
  • Email Questions
    • Kevin in Duluth, MN: How much progress has been made in understanding that allows cells in an embryo to “become” one type or another?
      • Fuz recommends looking into some work by Paul Nelson on this issue. Accessed on 12-16-2003.
    • Randy in Denver, CO: Would shorter days earlier in the Earth’s history have affected the calculations of time we have recorded in the Bible?
  • Theology segment: The Christmas Star, by Hugh Ross

Creation Update #205
Top 10 Scientific Discoveries of 2003 that Support RTB’s Testable Creation Model
Air-date: 12-23-2003
Hugh Ross, Fuz Rana and Krista Bontrager

#1 Publication of the WMAP results provides not only strong confirmation for the “big bang” model for the origin of the universe, but also lends support for the accuracy of the Bible. Discussed on Creation Update, airdate 02-18-2003.

#2 The discovery of urochordates existing in the fossil record contemporaneously with chordates, hemichordates, cephalochordates, echinoderms, jawless vertebrates, and jawed vertebrates adds to the mounting evidence against the traditional Darwinian explanation for the Cambrian Explosion. Discussed on Creation Update, airdate 07-08-2003.

#3 A new model for the early life for the sun adds to our understanding of the design of the conditions on the early Earth, which allowed for an abundance and diversity of life. Discussed on Creation Update, airdate 04-29-2003.

  • I.-Juliana Sackmann and Arnold I. Boothroyd, "Our Sun. V. A Bright Young Sun Consistent with Helioseismology and Warm Temperatures on Ancient Earth and Mars," Astrophysical Journal 583 (2003), 1024-39.
  • Related Resource: A Bright Younger Sun, by Hugh Ross

#4 New insights into the production of chloromethane add to the mounting evidence for the fine-tuning of the early earth. Botanists discover that chloromethane, a destroyer of stratospheric ozone, is efficiently produced by rotting plants and fungi that are exposed to the atmosphere. Production goes up with the atmospheric temperature. Thus, life’s survival requires efficient burial mechanisms and temperatures that are not too high. This discovery adds another complex element to the faint sun paradox. Discussed on Creation Update, airdate 07-22-2003.

  • John T. G. Hamilton, et al, “Chloride Methylation by Plant Pectin: An Efficient Environmentally Significant Process,” Science, 301 (2003), 206-209.
  • Related Resource: The Faint Sun Paradox, by Hugh Ross

#5 Is human evolution a fact? Evidence continues to mount against any genetic link between ancient modern humans and Neanderthals. Discussed on Creation Update, airdate 05-13-2003.

#6 Emerging technology allowed astronomers to use gamma ray bursts to test rates of time dilation. This technique not only offers another confirmation of the “big bang” model for the origin of the universe, it also allows Christians to put the young-earth cosmology promoted by Russell Humphreys to the test. Discussed on Creation Update, airdate 07-15-2003.

#7 Are endogenous retroviruses proof for human evolution? Increased understanding of this form of “junk” DNA reveals that they do indeed have function and are consistent with Intelligent Design, rather than being evidence for descent from a common primate ancestor. Discussed on Creation Update, airdate 10-14-2003.

#8 Confirmation of the Biblical date for Hezekiah’s tunnel: Results from radiometric dating provides more evidence for the historical accuracy of the Bible. Discussed on Creation Update, airdate 09-23-2003.

#9. Parasites Trace the Origin and Spread of Humanity: Scientists use body lice to date the recent appearance of modern humans (descendents of Adam and Eve) and trace early migration patterns. This discovery also confirms RTB’s suggestion that the manufacturing of clothing is a feature of highly intelligent creatures bearing the image of God and also provides evidence that hominids did not wear clothing. Discussed on Creation Update, airdate 09-02-2003.

#10 Five species symbiosis: An intricate series of biological relationships defies explanation within an evolutionary context, but is consistent with a Creator who is capable of creating a complex chain of interdependent organisms. Discussed on Creation Update, airdate 02-04-2003.