Reasons to Believe

Creation Update Archive - 2002

Welcome to the 2002 collection of Creation Update Archives

Table of Contents


Creation Update #104
Fine-tuning of the Earth's Dynamo
Air-date: 01-08-2002
Dr. Hugh Ross, Dr. Fazale Rana and Krista Bontrager

  • Discoveries Discussed
    • Fine-tuning of the earth's dynamo (core)
      • Jihad Touma and Jack Wisdom, "Non-Linear Core-Mantle Coupling," The Astronomical Journal 122 (August, 2001), 1030-1050.
      • Gerald Schubert and Keke Zhang, "Effects of an Electrically Conducting Inner Core on Planetary and Stellar Dynamos," The Astronomical
        Journal 557 (2001), 930-942.
    • 2 new tests for the principle of General Relativity
      • Sudip Bhattacharyya et al. "General Relativistic Spectra of Accretion Disks Around Rotating Neutron Stars," The Astrophysical Journal 550 (April 1, 2001), 841-845.
      • S.W. Bruenn and K.R. De Nisco, "General Relativistic Effects in the Core Collapse Supernova Mechanism," The Astrophysical Journal 560 (October 10, 2001), 326-338.
    • Haplotype diversity on chromosome 21
      • Nila Patil et al., "Blocks of Limited Haplotype Diversity Revealed by High-Resolution Scanning of Human Chromosome 21," Science 294 (November 23, 2001), 1719-1723.
      • Pui-Yan Kwok, "Genetic Association by Whole-Genome Analysis?" Science 294 (November 23, 2001), 1669-1670.
      • Anne C. Stone et al., "High levels of Y-chromosomme nucleotide diversity in the genus Pan," PNAS 99 (January 8, 2002), 43-48.
    • Y-chromosome study on chimpanzee genetic diversity
      • Asao Fujiyama et al., "Construction and Analysis of a Human-Chimpanzee Comparative Clone Map," Science 295 (January 4, 2002), 131-134.
  • Call-In Questions
    • Ian from Santa Clarita wanted to get some clarification on the differences between Cro-Magnon man and Neanderthals? To learn more about RTB's position on the origin of man, Dr. Ross recommends our book, "Who Was Adam?"
    • Jim from Colorado Springs asked: At what point in history did the idea of a 24-hour creationism become such a dogmatic view? For more on this, Dr. Ross recommends the book Ronald Numbers's book, The Creationists.
    • George from Pasadena wanted to get some clarification on an issue he heard discussed in Dr. Ross's debate with Kent Hovind on the John Ankerberg Show: Can you explain more about measuring the distance between quasars and trignometric parallax? To order The Ankerberg Debate please visit our webstore.
  • E-mail Questions
    • Kay wanted to know what resources to pass along to an atheist friend who is scientifically minded. Hugh recommends his book, The Creator and the Cosmos, 3rd Edition and our magazine, FACTS for FAITH.
    • Rob wanted Hugh and Fuz to comment about the plausibility of a natural explanation for rapid recoveries after mass extinction events that he's heard about.
    • Alejandro, an RTB apologist in Argentina, wanted to know: Does Dr. Ross think the scientific evidence for God will continue to increase in the coming years?
    • Kristen H. wanted to know how Christians account for "sub-human" (bi-pedal primates) skeletons that scientists have found. To learn more about RTB's position on the origin of man, Dr. Ross recommends our book, "Who Was Adam?," as well as Dr. Rana's article, "The Leap to Two Feet," in Issue 8 of FACTS for FAITH.
    • Wendy wanted Hugh and Fuz to clarify the difference between progressive creationists and theistic evolutionists. To order Hugh and Fuz's interview with theistic evolutionist Keith Miller, please visit call our main office at 800.482.7836.

Creation Update #105
Population 3 Stars: Refinement of the Big Bang Model
Air-date: 01-15-2002
Dr. Hugh Ross, Dr. Fazale Rana and Krista Bontrager

  • Discoveries Discussed
    • Population 3 stars
      • I. Baraffe and H. Heger and S.E. Woosley, "On the stability of very massive primodial stars," The Astrophysical Journal 550 (April 1, 2001), 890-896.
      • C. Abria and I. Dominguez et al., "The implications of the new Z = 0 stellar models and yields on the early metal pollution of the intergalactic medium," The Astrophysical Journal 557 (August 10, 2001), 126-136.
      • Kazuyuki Omukai and Francesco Palla, "On the formation of massive primordial stars," The Astrophysical Journal 561 (November 1, 2001), L55-L58.
      • S. Peng Oh, Kenneth M. Nollett, Piero Madau, and G.J. Wasserburg, "Did very massive stars preenrich and reionize the universe?" The Astrophysical Journal 562 (November 20, 2001), L1-L4.
      • Martin J. Rees, "How the Cosmic Dark Age Ended," Science 295 (January 4, 2002), 51-53.
      • Tom Abel, Greg L. Bryan, Michael L. Normon, "The Formation of the First Star in the Universe," Science 295 (January 4, 2002), 93-98.
      • A. Heger, S.E. Woosley, The Astrophysical Journal (currently available at
    • Ochre discovered in S. Africa dated at 75,000 years ago
      • Christopher S. Henshilwood et al., "Emergence of Modern Human Behavior: Middle Stone Age Engravings from South Africa," Science Express (2002).
      • Christopher S. Henshilwood et al., "An Early Bone Tool Industry from the Middle Stone Age at Blombos Cave, South Africa: Implications for the Origins of Modern Human Behavior, Symbolism and Language," Journal of Human Evolution 41 (2001), 631-678.
    • Sugars in the Merchanson and Murray meteorites
      • Mark A. Sephton, "Life Sweet Beginnings," Nature 414 (December 20/27, 2001), 857-858.
      • R. Cowen, "Did Space Rocks Deliver Sugar?" Science News 160 (December 22 & 29, 2001), 388.
      • George Cooper et al., "Carbonaceous meteorites as a source of sugar-related organic compounds for the early Earth," Nature 414 (December 20/27, 2001), 879-883.
  • Call-In Questions
    • Tim from Littleton, CO wanted Hugh and Fuz to respond to recent news reports about scientists pushing human origins back to 75,000 years ago. Listen to Dr. Ross explain more about thermal luminescence dating on a past radio program #239.
    • Colin from Irondale, AL called to clarify the Roman Catholic position about evolution.
    • Ian from Santa Clarita wanted to get Dr. Ross's perspective on another argument for the acceleration of light travel. For more about this issue, Dr. Ross recommends our video, "Unraveling Starlight and Time," or past radio program #136. A technical paper responding to the cosmology of Russell Humphreys is also available through our online store.
    • Baruch from Toledo, OH asked: What does the word "yom" mean?
    • Kenny from Milton, FL: How does RTB's creation model account for scientific evidence that humans ate animals before the flood, while God doesn't allow humans to eat meat until Genesis 9?
  • E-mail Questions
    • William asked a follow-up about Hugh's discussion of Population 3 stars.
    • Bill T. from Kenai, Alaska: Have you read Michael Behe's book, Darwin's
      Black Box? Do you find his book is accurate and responsible? Behe's book is available through our webstore.
    • Cameron, an illustrator at Science magazine, wanted to know: What is RTB's documentation that the vela supernova made any change in the amount of cosmic rays that the earth is bathed in?
    • Kevin B., an RTB apologist, asked: Do ice cores in Antarctica provide evidence for the Vela supernova?
    • David wanted Hugh to respond to something he heard on Art Bell: Could hyperdimensions account for global warming on Mars?

Creation Update #106
Scientifically Testing Death before the Fall
Air-date: 01-22-2002
Dr. Hugh Ross, Dr. Fazale Rana and Krista Bontrager

  • Discoveries Discussed
    • The role of predators in an eco-system
      • John Terborgh, Lawrence Lopez, et al., "Ecological Meltdown in Predator-Free Forest Fragments," Science 294 (November 30, 2001), 1923-1926.
    • Skull and cranial-dental anatomy
      • Marcia S. Ponce de Leon and Christoph P.E. Zollikofer, "Neanderthal Cranial Ontogeny and Its Implications for Late Hominid Diversity," Nature 412 (2001), 534-38. B. Bower, "Neanderthals, Humans May Have Grown Apart," Science News 160 (2001), 71.
    • Measuring "dark matter"
      • Mikel Susperregi, "Overconstrained Dynamics in Galaxy Redshift Surveys," Astrophysical Journal 563 (December 20, 2001), 473-482.
    • Confirmation of Solar age
      • J. E. Lawler, "Improved Laboratory Transition Parameters for Eu II and Application to the Solar Europium Elemental and Istopic Composition," Astrophysical Journal 563 (December 20, 2001), 1075-1088.
  • Call-In Questions
    • Cole from Ft. Worth, TX wanted to ask Hugh if he's heard about an article in Science about evidence for early plants.
    • George from Pasadena, CA called to ask Hugh if he's heard of a new magazine, called Research News.
    • Cameron, an illustrator at Science magazine, wanted to know: What is Dr. Ross's scriptural evidence that we are still in the 7th creation day? What other Hebrew word could be used to communicate a "long" day besides "yom"? For more about these issues, Dr. Ross recommends, The Genesis Debate.
    • Mike from Columbus, IN asked: Does Hugh know that Answers in Genesis uses quotes from Hugh's books in their video series?
  • E-mail Questions
    • Keven asked what Fuz thought about Jack Cuozzo's book, Buried Alive, and his hypothesis that Neanderthals are human. To learn more about RTB's model for human origins, Dr. Ross recommends our book, "Who Was Adam?" and the paper, "A Scientific and Biblical Response To: 'Up from the Apes. Remarkable New Evidence Is Filling in the Story of How We Became Human.'"
    • Paul wanted to know: Has Dr. Ross read the book, Creation and Time, which rebuts his books of the same title? Dr. Ross's book, Creation and Time, is available through our web store.
    • Andy asked: Aren't counter-rotating planets in the solar system evidence against the "big bang" model? Dr. Ross's television debate with Kent Hovind on the John Ankerberg Show is available through our web store.

Creation Update #107
Science and the Koran
Air-date: 01-29-2002
Dr. Hugh Ross, Kenneth Samples and Krista Bontrager

  • Resources Discussed
    • Daniel Golden, "Strange Bedfellows: Western scholars play key role in touting the 'science' of the Quran," Wall Street Journal, January 23, 2002.
    • The Bible, The Quran, and Science, by Maurice Bucaille
    • Christian response to Bucaille's book: The Quran and the Bible in the Light of History and Science, by William Campbell (This book is currently out of print, but will soon be back in print. RTB will carry this book once it comes back in print, so keep checking our web store.)
  • Call-In Questions
    • Patrick from Holden, MA wanted to get some clarification on Romans 8:23-24: Do these verses speak about the effects of the fall?
    • Cameron from Washington D.C. needed some help answering his friend's objection to the Christian faith: How can we show the superiority of God's morality to unbelievers?
    • Cameron also wanted to know about an article by Barry Sudderfield about the speed of light slowing down. Is this evidence for a young earth? For more about the difficulties with Sudderfield's theory, Dr. Ross recommends our video, "Unraveling Starlight and Time" as well as a previous radio show (#136) where we discussed this topic more thoroughly. You can also read a short summary about the problems with Sudderfield's theory on the Answers in Genesis web site.
    • George from Pasadena, CA: Has Dr. Ross heard of a periodical called, Research News and Opportunities in Science and Theology?
  • E-mail Questions
    • James wanted to get some clarification on where RTB stands in relationship to young-earth creationism and theistic evolution.
    • Michael Hanks wants to know how to respond to skeptical friends who ask: How do I know the Christian God is the one true God?
    • Frank asked: Does cold fusion exist?

Creation Update #108
Supernatural Interventions on the Early Earth
Air-date: 02-05-2002
Dr. Hugh Ross, Dr. Fazale Rana and Krista Bontrager

  • Discoveries Discussed
    • Zircons
      • Yuri Amelin, Der-Chuen Lee, Alex N. Halliday & Robert T. Pidgeon, "Nature of the Earth's earliest crust from hafnium isotopes in single detrital zircons," Nature 399 (May 20, 1999), 252-255.
      • James K. W. Lee, Ian S. Williams & David J. Ellis, "Pb, U and Th diffision in natural zircon," Nature 390 (November 13, 1997), 159-161.
      • Stephen J. Mojzsis, T. Mark Harrison & Robert T. Pidgeon, "Oxygen-isotope evidence from ancient zircons for liquid water at the Earth's surface 4,300 Myr ago," Nature 409 (January 11, 2001), 178-181.
      • Simon A. Wilde, John W. Valley, William H. Peck & Colin M. Graham, "Evidence from detrital zircons for the existence of continental crust and oceans on the Earth 4.4 Gyr ago," Nature 409 (January 11, 2001), 175-178.
      • Andrew Glikson, "Evidence for a 3.2+/-0.1 Ga impact cataclysm in the Earth-Moon system," preprint of paper presented at the Conference of Earth-Moon Relationships, (November 8-10, 2000).
    • Methanogen Model for the Early Earth
      • Alexander A. Pavlov, James F. Kasting, Jennifer L. Eigenbrode, Katherine H. Freeman, "Organic haze in Earth's early atmosphere: Source of low 13C Late Archean kerogens?" Geology v. 29, n. 11 (November 2001), 1003-1006.
    • Nitogen14 enriched kerogen tars
      • Daniele L. Pinti, Ko Hashizume and Jun-ichi Matsuda, "Nitrogen and argon signatures in 3.8 to 2.8 Ga Metasediments: Clues on the chemical state of the Archean ocean and deep biosphere," Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta v. 65, n. 14 (2001), 2301-2315.
    • Skeletal structure of bacteria
      • Harold P. Erickson, "Evolution in bacteria," Nature 413 (September 6, 2001), 30.
      • Fusinita van den Ent, Linda A. Amos & Jan Lowe, "Prokaryotic origin of the actin cytoskeleton," Nature 413 (September 6, 2001), 39-44.
    • Minimum gene products for life
      • Brian J. Akerley, Eric J. Rubin, et al., "A genome-scale analysis for identification of genes required for growth or survival of Haemophilus influenzae," PNAS 99 (January 22, 2002), 966-971.
      • Sorel T. Fitz-Gibbon, et al., "Genome sequence of the hyperthermophilic crenarchaeon Pyrobaculum aerophilum," PNAS 99 (January 22, 2002), 984-989.
  • Call-In Questions
    • Cameron from Washington D.C., wanted to know: Are there any published mathematical models for self-replicating ribozymes in the RNA world hypothesis? Here is the information on the abstract mentioned by Dr. Rana: Guenter von Kiedrowski, "Spread and more: Selection or Coexistence of Parabolic Surface Replicators?" ISSOL '99.
      • What enzyme needs the speed of light to be constant in order to digest food? Here is the information about that article: G.F.R. Ellis, "The Anthropic Principle: Laws and Environments," The Anthropic Principle, F. Bertola & U. Curi, eds., (1993), 30.
    • Ian from Santa Clarita, CA asked: Why does the scientific community mislead the public by using thermal luminescent dating methods?
    • John from Tallahassee, FL wanted Dr. Ross to comment about Gerald Schroeder's relativistic time dilation.
  • E-mail Questions
    • Jim from Casper, WY asked: Can young earth creationists argue for the distortion of light velocities by the unknown characteristics of dark/exotic matter in the universe?
    • Dawayne was somewhat disturbed by Dr. Ross's statement that the earth is billions of years old and how this squares with what the Bible teaches. Dr. Ross recommends his books, Creation and Time and The Genesis Debate and his video debate with Kent Hovind on the "John Ankerberg Show." All of these are available through our web store or by calling 800.482.7836.

Creation Update #109
Evolutionary Speed Limits
Air-date: 02-12-2002
Dr. Hugh Ross, Dr. Fazale Rana and Krista Bontrager

  • Discoveries Discussed
    • Evolutionary Speed Limits
      • James W. Kirchner, "Evolutionary speed limits inferred from the fossil record," Nature 415 (January 3, 2002), 65-68.
    • Social behavior in insects
      • Bryan N. Danforth, "Evolution of sociality in a primitively eusocial lineage of bees," PNAS 99 (2002), 286-290.
    • Compound eyes in arthropods
      • Todd H. Oakley and Clifford W. Cunningham, "Molecular phylogenetic evidence for the independent evolutionary origin of an arthropod compound eye," PNAS 99 (2002), 1426-1430.
    • Bat origins:
      • Emma C. Teeling, et al., "Microbat paraphyly and the convergent evolution of a key innovation in Old World rhinolophoid microbats" PNAS Early Edition 99 (2002).
  • E-mail Questions
    • John from the UK asked: If body size is a major contributor for extinction, then why do some species remain unchanged for millions of years?
    • Jon H. wrote in response to a comment Dr. Ross made about young-earth creationists being "evolutionists" on our 1-22-02 broadcast.
    • Rusty from Knoxville, TN asked: How do you account for vestigal organs? Are they evidence for evolution?
    • Jim Caywood and Rob Gibson wanted our scholars to comment on a recent news story (Nature, February 6, 2002) related to the hox gene.
    • Rob Gibson asked several other thoughtful questions about the earth's magnetic field and its effect on mutation rates. Could this account for macro-evolution?

Creation Update #110
Stem Cell Research without Destroying Embryos
Air-date: 02-19-2002
Dr. Hugh Ross, Dr. Fazale Rana and Krista Bontrager

  • Discoveries Discussed
    • Stem-cell research
      • Jennifer Couzin, "Primate Parthenotes Yield Stem Cells," Science 295 (2002), 779-781.
      • Jose B. Cibellli, Kathleen A. Grant, et al., "Parthenogenetic Stem Cells in Nonhuman Primates," Science 295 (2002), 819.
        • For more about RTB's perspective on cloning and stem cell research, we recommend Dr. Rana's message, A Christian Perspective on Biotechnology.
    • Carbonate in dust around old stars
      • F. Kemper, C. Jåger, et. al., "Detection of carbonates in dust shells around evolved stars," Nature 415 (January 17, 2002), 295-297.
    • Confirmation of Yockey's origin of life calculation
      • Patrice Koehl, "Protein topology and stability define the space of allowed sequences," PNAS Early Edition (2002). For more about RTB's testable creation model for the origin of life, we recommend Dr. Rana's message, "The Origin of Life." Call our office at 1-800-482-7836 as ask for item #A0160.
  • Call-In Questions
    • Kenny from Milton, FL asked: Is it true that creosote bushes in the Mohave desert are 11,000 years old?
  • E-mail Questions
    • Paul F. wanted Hugh and Fuz to respond to a recent article in the 2/08/02 edition of the Plain Dealer about Ohio's attempt to get "Intelligent Design" into public school education. For more about RTB's perspectives on teaching science in public schools, Dr. Ross recommends our audio tape series, "Scopes Trial Revisited" and his debate with Eugenie Scott and Duane Gish, entitled "God, Darwin or Both?"
    • Andy wants to know: What biblical evidence is there against young-earth creationism?
    • Missi asked a couple follow up questions about our audio tape series, "Life and Death in Eden."
  • Truth of Fiction?
    • Will a mysterious Planet X and brown dwarf destroy the earth sometime in 2002? To read more about Planet X and Nemesis, Dr. Ross recommends a web site by Paul Schlyter at the University of Arizona.

Creation Update #111
Challenging the Mechanism for Punctuated Equilibrium
Air-date: 02-26-2002
Dr. Hugh Ross, Dr. Fazale Rana and Krista Bontrager

  • Discoveries Discussed
    • Punctuated Equilibrium
      • Cagan H. Sekercioglu, et al., "Disappearance of insectivorous birds from tropical forest fragments," PNAS 99 (January 8, 2002), 263-267.
      • Kevin Higgins and Michael Lynch, et al., "Metropopulation Extinction Caused by Mutation Accumulation," PNAS 98 (2001), 2928-33.
      • Alan R. Templeton, et al., "Disrupting Evolutionary Processes: The Effect of Habitat Fragmentation on Collared Lizards in the Missouri Ozarks," PNAS 98 (2001), 5426-32.
        • For more about RTB's perspective on evolution, watch for our upcoming series on TBN.
    • Brane Scan
      • P.P. Avelino and C.J.A.P. Martins, "A Supernova Brane Scan," The Astrophysical Journal 565 (February 1, 2002), 661-667. To learn more about the space-energy density term, Hugh Ross recommends The Creator and the Cosmos, 3rd edition and Issue #2 of FACTS for FAITH.
    • Design of Eukarytoic Cells
      • Hyman Hartman, "The origin of the eukaryotic cell: A genomic investigation," PNAS Early Edition (2002). For more about RTB's testable creation model for the origin of life, we recommend Dr. Rana's message, "The Origin of Life." Call our office at 1-800-482-7836 as ask for item #A0160.
  • Call-In Questions
    • Scott from Wilmington, DE called to alert us to a recent article in Discover magazine about the inflationary big bang model.
    • Bill from Sioux Falls, SD asked: What are the origins of head lice?
    • Rich from Midland, MI asked Fuz: Do you know more examples of convergence of genetically unrelated species? Listen to our recent discussion of convergence on the February 12, 2002 broadcast, and Fuz's article in Issue 4 of FACTS for FAITH.
    • Mike from Columbus, IN wanted some help answering a evolutionary biologist: What are some of strongest arguments against RTB's testable creation model? For more about RTB's creation model for the origin of life, we recommend Dr. Rana's messages, "The Origin of Life" (#A0160) and "Is Human Evolution a Fact?" These audio tapes can be ordered through our office by calling 1-800-482-7836. We also recommend our book, "Who Was Adam?" which outlines our creation model approach to the origin of man in more detail. Predictions and recent discoveries related to the origin of life were discussed on our February 5, 2002 broadcast.
  • E-mail Questions
    • Robert asked that we do a program about Planet X. Hugh Ross discussed Planet X on our February 12, 2002 broadcast.
    • Benjamin N. wanted to ask Fuz whether homochirality is still a problem for origin of life researchers. Citation for this paper will be posted soon.
    • Christopher N. asked: How many animals did Adam name, and how long would this take a man to do? Wouldn't this process alone take longer than 24 hours?
    • Andy wants to know: What does Hugh think about Walt Brown's hydroplate theory?
    • Kenny wants Fuz to look up some evidence for livorwort spores dating back to 510 to 520 million years ago: Citation for this paper will be posted soon.
    • Becky asked: If God created this universe so that it wouldn't last forever, then how would humans have gone to heaven if they never fell into sin? For more about death before the fall, we recommend our audio tape series, "Life and Death in Eden."

Creation Update #112
Cambrian Explosion -- Now More Explosive!
Air-date: 03-05-2002
Dr. Hugh Ross, Dr. Fazale Rana and Krista Bontrager

  • Discoveries Discussed
    • Gamma-Ray Bursters
      • John Scalo and J. Craig Wheeler, "Astrophysical and Astrobiological Implications of Gamma-Ray Burst Properties," The Astrophysical Journal 566 (February 20, 2002), 723-737.
    • Cambrian Explosion -- Discovery of new phylum
      • Henry Gee, "On being vetulicolian," Nature 414 (November 22, 2001), 407-408.
      • D.G. Shu, S. Conway Morris, et al., "Primitive deuterostomes from the Chengjian Lagerstatte (Lower Cambrian, China)," Nature 414 (November 22, 2001), 419-424.
        • To learn more about the Cambrian Explosion, read our interview with Dr. Paul Chien in FACTS for FAITH and Fuz Rana's article, "Cambrian Flash" in Connections.
    • Asteroids and Extinction
      • Richard A. Kerr, "No 'Darkness at Noon' To Do In the Dinosaurs?" Science (February 22, 2002), 1445, 1447.
  • Call-In Questions
    • Ed from Medford, OR asked: How do you respond to Gribbon's book for multiple universes as a defeater for the anthropic principle? For more about the multi-universe theory, Dr. Ross recommends his book, The Creator and the Cosmos, 3rd edition. We also carry a video series which answers the 17 most common objections to the Christian faith entitled, Answering Atheist Objections to Christianity.
    • Pat from Barre, VT wanted to know: Was the earth's rotation faster in the past than today? How would this have affected the ocean's currents? For more about the biblical data for continent formation, Dr. Ross recommends our television series, Psalm 104. We also recommend the book, Rare Earth, which discusses the science of the early earth.
    • George from Pasadena, CA wanted to know: Was Hugh aware that the earth was covered with water like Genesis 1:2 says when he read the Bible for the first time?
  • E-mail Questions
    • Rusty from Anaheim, CA had several questions:
      • How long does it take for ecosystem to recover after a mass extinction event?
      • How long does it take for oil to form?
      • Is RTB having another creation conference this year?
      • Are geologic and radiometric dating methods reliable? For a somewhat technical treatment about the reliability of radiometric dating methods, please read "Radiometric Dating: A Christian Perspective" by Gordon Wiens.
    • Scott H. from Wilmington, DE: Where does the evidence for extra time dimension come from?
    • Steve, physics teacher at Northglenn High School asked: How can I find a reference to support your claim that a volcano in Siberia spewed enough volcanic material to cover the earth 20 feet thick at the Permian-Triassic catastrophe? Here are a couple of references to get started:
      • "Impact Event at the Permian-Triassic Boundary: Evidence from Extraterrestrial Noble Gases in Fullerenes," Science (February 23, 2001)
      • "Synchrony and Casual Relations Between Permian-Triassic Boundary Crises and Siberian Flood Volcanism," Science (September 8, 1995)
    • Pastor David V. wants help discerning between what Carl Baugh teaches and what Hugh Ross teaches. Please consider writing a letter of appreciation to the Trinity Broadcasting Network for carrying the Reasons To Believe program. Send letters to: Trinity Broadcasting Network, P.O. Box A, Santa Ana, CA 92711.
    • Paul F. asked: Has Hugh responded to William Lane Craig's critique posted on your web site?

Creation Update #113
Fossilized Evidence of the Earliest Life or Very Old Dirt?
Air-date: 03-12-2002
Dr. Fazale Rana, Kenneth Samples and Krista Bontrager

  • Discoveries Discussed
    • Earliest life
      • Anatoliy B. Kudryavtsev, J. William Schopf, David G. Agresti and Thomas Wdowiak, "In situ laser-Raman imagery of Precambrian microscopic fossils," PNAS 98 (January 30, 2001), 823-826.
      • Henry Gee, "That's life?" Nature 416 (March 7, 2002), 28. J. William Schopf, et al., "Laser-Raman imagery of Earth's earliest fossils," Nature 416 (March 7, 2002), 73-75.
      • Martin D. Brasier, et al., "Questioning the evidence for Earth's oldest fossils," Nature 416 (March 7, 2002), 76-78.
    • Clarifying the identity of archaic homo sapiens
      • Daniel E. Lieberman, Brandeis M. McBratney and Gail Krovitz, "The evolution and development of cranial form in Homo sapiens," PNAS Early Edition.
    • Genetic evidence for multi-regional hypothesis?
      • Rebecca L. Cann, "Tangled genetic routes," Nature 416 (March 7, 2002), 32-34.
      • Alan R. Templeton, "Out of Africa again and again," Nature 416 (March 7, 2002), 45-47.
        • For more about the multi-regional hypothesis, listen to one of our past radio programs: Show #217
  • Call-in Questions
    • Mark from New York City asked: How can I approach my local school board about teaching Darwinism in public school? Fuz suggested contacting the Discovery Institute for help. Their web site is: For more about RTB's testable creation model, we recommend the following resources:
    • Ian from Santa Clarita wanted to know: What can we tell from a small fossil fragment?
    • George from Pasadena, CA wanted to ask a question about our audio tape product, Scopes Trial Revisited.
    • Cameron from Washington D.C. Wanted to ask Ken a question about a supposed contradiction in the Bible: It seems like there is a contradiction between Matthew 10:10 and Mark 6:8? For more about Bible "difficulties" Ken recommends two books,
      • When Critics Ask (Norman Geisler)
      • Encyclopedia of Bible Difficulties (Gleason Archer)
  • Email Questions
    • John B. asked: What is your view of the Sabbath? For about this topic, Ken recommends the book, From Sabbath to Lord's Day by D.A. Carson.
    • George wanted to get Ken to comment on his question: Do you believe that it was impossible for any person living in the Western Hemisphere to be saved prior to Columbus opening the way for the gospel in 1492? For about this topic, Ken recommends the book, "Is Jesus the Only Savior?" by Ron Nash and, "Only one way?" and a past radio program: Do All Religions Pray to the Same God? (show #236).
    • John wanted to get Ken's thoughts on whether the Roman Catholic church are Christians? To read an extended discussion about Roman Catholicism, see his series with Norm Geisler, "What Think Ye of Rome?" Christian Research Journal, Winter and Spring, 1993, Spring/Summer 1994, Fall 1994.

Creation Update #114
More Evidence for Supernatural Design in the Biochemical Realm
Air-date: 03-19-2002
Dr. Fazale Rana, Dr. David Rogstad and Krista Bontrager

  • Discoveries Discussed:
    • Using DNA technology to make nano-machines:
      • Nadrian C. Seeman and Angela M. Belcher, "Emulating biology: Building nanostructures from the the bottom up," PNAS Early Edition 99 (2002).
      • J. Fraser Stoddart and Hsian-Rong Tseng, "Chemical synthesis gets a fillip from molecular recognition and self-assembly processes" PNAS Early Edition 99 (2002).
    • Stem cell mutation and tumor formation:
      • Rachel B. Cervantes, James R. Stringer, et al., "Embryonic stem cells and somatic cells differ in mutation frequency and type," PNAS 99 (March 19, 2002), 3586-3590.
    • Redrawing the evolutionary tree:
      • William J. Murphey et al., "Resolution of the Early Placental Mammal Radiation Using Bayesian Phylogenetics," Science 294 (December 14, 2001), 2348-2351.
      • Elizabeth Pennisi, "Placentals' Family Tree Drawn and Quartered," Science 294 (December 14, 2001), 2266-2268.
      • S. Perkins, "Genes Seem to Link Unlikely Relatives," Science News 159 (January 6, 2001), 4.
      • S. Blair Hedges, "Afrotheria: Plate tectonics meets genomics," PNAS 98 (January 2, 2001) 1-2.
      • Marjon A.M. Van Dijk, et al., "Protein sequence signatures support the African clade of mammals," PNAS 98 (January 2, 2001), 188-193.
  • Call-in Questions:
    • Walter from Dallas wanted to suggest a scientific model to test macro-evolution. The book mentioned by Dr. Rogstad: Fred Hoyle, Mathematics of Evolution is currently available through
  • Email Questions
    • Andy wanted to get Fuz to comment on a recent science article: Does a recent discovery in China settle "once and for all" the debate over whether dinosaurs and birds are related? Here are some additional resources on RTB's perspective about the bird-dinosaur debate: Bambiraptor (radio show #107) and Darwinism's Fine-Feathered Friends.
    • Grant wanted Fuz's comments on Jonathan Wells's book, Icons of Evolution: Is it accurate? Is his method effective?
    • Michael wanted to know: Are radiometric dating methods reliable? For a somewhat technical treatment about the reliability of radiometric dating methods, please read "Radiometric Dating: A Christian Perspective" by Gordon Wiens.

Creation Update #115
Time Travel: Science Fact or Science Fiction?
Air-date: 03-26-2002
Dr. Hugh Ross and Krista Bontrager

  • Discoveries Discussed
    • Fine-tuning of plate tectonics
      • Klaus Regeneauer-Lieb, Dave A. Yuen, and Joy Branlund, "The Initiation of Subduction: Criticality by Addition of Water?" Science 294 (October 19, 2001), 578-580.
      • James Wookey, J.-Michael Kendall, and Guilhem Barruol, "Mid-mantle deformation inferred from seismic anisotropy," Nature 415 (February 14, 2002), 777-780.
    • Diversity in Speciation
      • David Tilman, Peter B. Reich, et al., "Diversity and Productivity in a Long-Term Grassland Experiment," Science 294 (October 26, 2001), 843-845.
    • Orbit of Io (Jupiter's moon)
      • K. Aksnes and F.A. Franklin, "Secular Acceleration from Mutual Satellite Events," The Astrophysical Journal 122 (November 2001), 2734-2739.
        • For more about the supernatural design of the moon, Dr. Ross recommends his book, The Creator and the Cosmos, 3rd edition. and What if the Moon Didn't Exist?: Voyages to Earths That Might Have Been by Neil F. Comins.
  • Call-in Questions
    • Randy from Collierville, TN asked: Why is light from the past still visible today? Wouldn't it have passed up by now? For more related to this topic:
      • Relativity Simply Explained
      • The Creator and the Cosmos, 3rd edition.
    • Pat from Burrie, VT wanted to know: Could wormholes be connected in time?
    • Kenny from Milton, FL wanted to get Hugh to comment on a recent article in Nature about water under the surface of the earth. Could this help the young-earth global flood model?
  • Email Questions
    • Larry asked: Is time travel possible?
    • Christian S. wanted to know: Do wormholes exist? Could this resolve the time travel problem? Dr. Ross discusses the limits of space travel in his new book, Lights in the Sky and Little Green Men.
    • James D. wanted to ask a follow up to a previous radio program: Where does Hugh get the idea that a key prediction of Darwinian evolution is that ecologies should develop toward optimality over time?
    • Steve B. wants to know if there are any Russian astronomers who believe in the big bang. Nick is disturbed by RTB's use of the term "fine-tuning."
  • Boot Camp

Creation Update Prime Time #1
Young-Earth Creationism: Interview with Dr. John Mark Reynolds
Air-date: 03-07-2002
Dr. Hugh Ross, Dr. Fazale Rana and Krista Bontrager

  • Dr. Reynolds's book, Three Views of Creation and Evolution is currenly available through
  • Dr. Reynolds's paper about the "appearance of age" argument:
  • John Mark Reynolds, "Gosse and Omphalos: The Bible and Science," The Proceedings of the Third International Conference on Creationism (1994), 459-466.

Creation Update #116
Hox Gene: Evolution's Magic Bullet?
Air-date: 04-02-2002
Dr. Hugh Ross, Dr. Fazale Rana and Joe Aguirre

  • Discoveries Discussed
    • Hox Gene
      • Mike Levine, "How insects lose their limbs," Nature 415 (February 21, 2002), 848-849.
      • Ron Galant & Sean B. Carroll, "Evolution of a transcriptional repression domain in an insect Hox protein," Nature 415 (February 21, 2002), 910-913.
      • Matthew Ronshaugen, Nadine McGinnis & William McGinnis, "Hox protein mutation and macroevolution of the insect body plan," Nature 415 (February 21, 2002), 914-917.
    • Testing the dipole moment of the cosmic background radiation
      • Chris Blake & Jasper Wall, "A velocity dipole in the distribution of radio galaxies," Nature 416 (March 14, 2002), 150-152.
      • George F. R. Ellis, "Maintaining the standard," Nature 416 (March 14, 2002), 132-133.
      • John Bahcall, "The Big Bang is bang on," Nature 408 (December 21/28, 2000), 916-917.
      • R. Srianand, P. Petitjean & C. Ledoux, "The cosmic microwave background radiation temperature at a redshift of 2.34," Nature 408 (December 21/28, 2000), 931-935.
    • Black holes: More evidence of divine design
      • M. Elvis, G. Risaliti, and G. Zamorani, "Most Supermassive Black Holes Must be Rapidly Rotating," The Astrophysical Journal 565 (February 1, 2002), L75-L77.
  • Boot Camp
    • Steven wrote in and wanted to know: Does the Bible contradict what the fossil record says that carnivores existing before the fall of Adam?

Creation Update #117
The Big Bang and the Christian Worldview
Air-date: 04-09-2002
Hugh Ross, Fuz Rana and Krista Bontrager

  • Discoveries Discussed
    • Could micro-meteorites deliver amino acids to the early earth?
      • Daniel P. Glavin and Jeffrey L. Bada, "Survival of Amino Acids in Micrometeorites During Atmospheric Entry" Astrobiology v. 1 n. 3, 259-269.
    • Laboratory attempts to simulate amino acid formation
      • Max P. Bernstein, Jason P. Dworkin, et al., "Racemic amino acids from the ultraviolet photolysis of interstellar ice analogues," Nature 416 (March 28, 2002), 401-406.
      • Everett L. Shock, "Seeds of Life?" Nature 416 (March 28, 2002), 380-381.
    • Mammal migration from Asia
      • S. Milius, "Did Mammals Spread from Asia?" Science News 161 (March 16, 2002), 165-166. Chris Beard, "East of Eden at the Paleocene/Eocene Boundary," Science 295 (March 15, 2002), 2028-2029.
      • Gabriel J. Bowen, William C. Clyde, et al., "Mammalian Dispersal at the Paleocene/Eocene Boundary," Science 295 (March 15, 2002), 2062-2065.
    • Another confirmation of the "flat" universe
      • Andrew Watson, "Cosmic Ripples Confirm Universe Speeding Up," Science 295 (March 29, 2002), 2341-2343.
  • Call-in Questions
    • Josh from Upland, CA asked: Could the universe come into existence without a cause? For more related to this topic:
    • Ian from Santa Clarita, CA wanted to know: Are there any ancient Jewish writings that talk about the length of the "days" of creation?
  • Email Questions
    • Julius asked: What does Hugh Ross think about the recent article in the April 2002 issue of Discover magazine about Alan Guth and the inflationary big bang?
    • Russell wanted to know: Why doesn't Hugh debate Russell Humphreys? Read Sam Connor's critique of Starlight and Time on our website.
    • Tom needed some help with some questions that have come up in his Sunday School class: What "light" is referred to in verse 3? How can we have plants without sun light which isn't made until verse 14? Is the earth older than the sun? For a more extended discussion about the chronology of God's creation miracles in Genesis 1:
    • David wanted to know: Have scientists been able to "create" life in the lab? If yes, what has been made?
    • Another listener asked: Is the flow of cosmic rays from the Vela supernova at a constant rate?
  • Boot Camp
    • Does the "big bang" contradict the Bible? For more related to this topic:
    • The Creator and the Cosmos, 3rd edition
    • The Big Bang: The Bible Taught it First! To order this tape, please call our main office at 800-482-7836 and ask for A0159.

Creation Update #118
Ancient DNA
Air-date: 04-16-2002
Dr. Hugh Ross, Dr. Fazale Rana and Krista Bontrager

  • Discoveries Discussed
    • Testing penguin mDNA mutation rate:
      • Elizabeth Pennisi, "Ancient DNA Untangles Evolutionary Paths," Science 295 (March 22, 2002), 2197.
      • D.M. Lambert, P.A. Ritchie, et al., "Rates of Evolution in Ancient DNA from Adelie Penguins," Science 295 (March 22, 2002), 2270-2273.
    • Repeated creation update: Tortoises
      • Jeremy J. Austin and E. Nicholas Arnold, "Ancient mDNA and morphology elucidate an extinct island radiation of Indian Ocean giant tortoises," Proceedings of the Royal Society of London 268 (2001), 2515-2523.
    • Design update: Smoking quasars
      • Martin Elvis, Massimo Marengo and Margarita Karovska, "Smoking Quasars: A New Source for Cosmic Dust," The Astrophysical Journal 567 (March 10, 2002), L107-L110.
    • Speciation model update: Plant inbreeding
      • Carlos D. Bustamante, Rasmus Nielsen, et al., "The cost of inbreeding in Arabidopsis," Nature 416 (April 4, 2002), 531-534.
  • Call-in Questions
    • Kenny from Milton, FL: How do young-earth creationists account for short term comets if there is no Oort belt?
  • Email Questions
    • Kevin from El Monte, CA: What does it mean when scientists say they have identified a "new" species?
    • Rob G. asked: What is the maximum theoretical red shift astronomers could observe in the future?
    • Jason wanted to know: Do you have any plans to interview any prominent atheists or evolutionists on your show?
    • Phillip U. wanted some help with his girlfriend: Does the Bible prohibit the study of astrology? Is it considered an occultic art? For more about a Christian perspective on astrology, we recommend our paper Astrology: Help, Hoax or Harm?, the article on "astrology" in the International Standard Bible Encyclopedia, and Astrology and Physic Phenomenon, by Andre Kole and Terry Holley.
    • Ken B. wanted to know: Has Fuz commented on how DNA contains information? Fuz recommends the book Information Theory and Molecular Biologyby Hubert P. Yockey.
      • Truth or Fiction
      • Is a real "Jurassic Park" possible?

Creation Update #119
Closing Evolutionary Loopholes
Air-date: 04-23-2002
Hugh Ross, Fazale Rana and Krista Bontrager

  • Discoveries Discussed
    • Solar system design updates
      • Free-floating planets: Jarrod R. Hurley and Michael M. Shara, "Free-Floating Planets in Stellar Clusters: Not So Surprising," The Astrophysical Journal 565 (February 1, 2002), 1251-1256.
      • Planetary drift: Shay Zucker and Tsevi Mazeh, "On the Mass-Period Correlation of the Extrasolar Planets," The Astrophysical Journal 568 (April 1, 2002), L113-L116.
      • M. Patzold and H. Rauer, "Where are the massive close-in extrasolar planets," The Astrophysical Journal 568 (April 1, 2002), L117-L120.
      • Micro-lensing: B.S. Gaudi, M.D. Albrow, et al., "Microlensing constraints on the frequency of Jupiter-mass companions: Analysis of 5 years of planet photometry," The Astrophysical Journal 566 (February 10, 2002), 463-499.
    • Cambrian Explosion
      • Speciation rate: Bruce S. Lieberman, "A test of whether rates of speciation were unusually high during the Cambrian radiation," Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B 268 (2001), 1707-1714.
      • Ediacaran identity: Michael Steiner and Joachim Reitner, "Evidence of organic structures in Ediacara-type fossils and associated microbial mats," Geology 29 (December 2001), 1119-1122.
      • To learn more about the Cambrian Explosion, we recommend our interview with Dr. Paul Chien in FACTS for FAITH, Issue 2.
    • Tree of Life vs. Fossil record
      • Michael J. Benton, "Finding the tree of life: matching phylogenetic trees to the fossil record through the 20th century," Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B 268 (2001), 2123-2130.
      • Matthew A. Wills, "The tree of life and the rock of ages: Are we getting better at estimating phylogeny," BioEssays 24 (2002), 203-207.
  • Call-In Questions
    • Ed from Des Moines, IA: Is the spiral shape God's watermark on creation?
    • Kenny from Milton, FL: Does Fuz know about evidence for modern humans in Africa at 125,000 years ago?
    • George from Pasadena, CA asked: Does Carl Baugh think that Noah took dinosaurs on the ark?
    • Stan from Placentia, CA: Was the fish that ate Jonah created after the 7th day? Read about a famous urban legend related to this topic: A Modern Jonah.
  • E-Mail Questions
    • John B. wanted to get Hugh's perspective on the scientific search for "earth-like" planets.
    • Becky asked: Who is Joseph Campbell? Are all religions "myth"? Ken's article on religious pluralism is available in FACTS for FAITH, Issue 8.
    • David wanted to respond to a point made on last week's show: Isn't the God of theist evolution wasteful and inefficient?
  • Boot Camp
    • Al Sparks asked: Did Noah's flood cover the entire earth? Here are some resources to learn more about Noah's flood:
    • The Genesis Question
    • Radio Series on Noah's ark (beginning with show #207)

Creation Update #120
Oscillating Universe on the Rebound?
Air-date: 04-30-2002
Hugh Ross, Fazale Rana and Krista Bontrager

  • Discoveries Discussed
    • Oscillating universe
      • Paul J. Steinhardt and Neil Turok, "A Cyclic Model of the Universe," Science Express (April 25, 2002).
      • For a Christian perspective on the oscillating universe model, we recommend Hugh's book, The Creator and the Cosmos, 3rd edition.
    • Retraction of M22 globular cluster discovery discussed on 4-23
    • Measuring the age of the universe through white dwarf stars To be published soon in Astrophysical Journal Letters, 2002.
    • Galapagos Islands finch research by Peter and Rosemary Grant
      • Peter R. Grant and B. Rosemary Grant, "Unpredictable Evolution in a 30-Year Study of Darwin's Finches," Science 296 (April 26, 2002), 707-711.
      • For more about the problems associated with finches being used as evidence for macro-evolution, we recommend the book, Icons of Evolution.
    • Response to Discovery Channel's documentary: The Real Eve
      • For more about the origin of man, we recommend our book, "Who Was Adam?" and the book, The Dawn of Human Culture, by Richard Klein.
  • Call-in Questions
    • Patrick from Holden, MA: How to tell the difference between "supernatural" and "natural" miracles in the Bible?
    • Jimmy from Twin Falls, ID wanted to ask a follow up question to Hugh's recent forum with Michael Shermer.
    • Walter from Dallas, TX had some follow-up questions about the oscillating universe discussed in the 1st hour.
    • George from Pasadena, CA: Does Carl Baugh promote Russell Humphrey's cosmology?
  • Email Questions
    • Mark wanted to know: What is the reason for why there must be a cause for the universe?

Creation Update #121
Energy Efficiency of Amino Acids: New Challenge to the Origin of Life Problem
Air-date: 05-07-2002
Hugh Ross, Fazale Rana and Krista Bontrager


  • Discoveries Discussed
    • Energy-efficiency of amino acids
      • Hiroshi Akashi and Takashi Gojobori, "Metabolic efficiency and amino acid composition in the proteomes of Escherichia coli and Bacillu subtilis," PNAS 99 (March 19, 2002), 3695-3700.
    • Beta sheet design
      • Jane S. Richardson and David C. Richardson, "Natural B-sheet proteins use negative design to avoid edge-to-edge aggregation," PNAS 99 (March 5, 2002), 2754-2759.
    • Amino acids in space
      • P. Ehrenfreund, M.P. Bernstein, et al., "The Photostability of Amino Acids in Space," The Astrophysical Journal 550 (March 20, 2001), L95-L99.
    • Bacteria in space
      • Gerda Horneck, Petra Rettberg, et al., "Protection of Bacterial Spores in Space, A Contribution to the Discussion on Panspermia," Origins of Life and Evolution in the Biosphere 31 (2001), 527-547.
  • Call-in Questions
    • Sam from Birmingham had some follow up comments concerning our discussion on Roman Catholicism.
    • Ian from Santa Clarita, C asked: Who is the y-chromosome contributor? How is the y-chromosome date calibrated?
  • Email Questions
    • Andy Z. asked: Would God's introduction of the races at the Tower of Babel violate His rest on the 7th Day of creation?
    • James K. wanted Hugh and Fuz to comment on the Discovery Channel documentary, The Real Eve. Read Hugh's article about mDNA studies on the family of the Russian Czar in Facts & Faith.
    • John B. wrote in with this question: Why does NASA have such a big push to find life in outer space? Read the three-way dialogue addressing the question: Did God create life on other planets? ] For more about extra-terrestrial life, we recommend our new book, Lights in the Sky and Little Green Men.
    • Abraham T. wanted to know: Does cross-pollination prove the young-earth model?
  • Boot Camp: Where did the different races come from?
    • For more about this topic, Dr. Ross recommends his book, The Genesis Question.
    • Kenneth Samples' Theology / Philosophy Segment
    • Ken Samples gives his perspective on the controversy in the Roman Catholic church about sexual abuse. Read Ken's article, The Hypocrisy Excuse.

Creation Update #122
Report from the Astrophysics of Life Conference: Search for Extra-Terrestrial Life
Air-date: 05-14-2002
Hugh Ross, Fazale Rana and Krista Bontrager

  • Discoveries Discussed
    • Special Guest: Dr. Guillermo Gonzales from Iowa State University
    • Planetary orbits
      • E.I. Chiang, D. Fischer and E. Thommes, "Excitation of Orbital Eccentricities of Extrasolar Planets by Repeated Resonance Crossings," The Astrophysical Journal 564 (January 10, 2002), L105-L109.
      • N. Murray, M. Paskowitz, and M. Holman, "Eccentricity Evolution of Migrating Planets," The Astrophysical Journal 565 (January 20, 2002), 608-620.
    • Critique of cosmology models that appeal to negative pressure
      • Brandon Carter, "Energy dominance and the Hawking Ellis vacuum conservation theorem," General Relativity and Quantum Cosmology (2002).
    • Minimum genome size for life
      • Alexei I. Slesarev, Katja V. Mezhevaya, et al, "The complete genome of hyperthermophile Methanopyrus kandleri AV19 and monophyly of archaeal methanogens," PNAS 99 (April 2, 2002), 4644-4649.
      • Harald Huber, Michael J. Hohn, et al, "A new phylum of Archaea represented by a nanosized hyperthermophilic symbiont," Nature 417 (May 2, 2002), 63-67.
      • Yan Boucher and W. Ford Doolittle, "Something new under the sea," Nature 417 (May 2, 2002), 27-28.
      • Rosario Gil, Beatriz Sabater-Munoz, et al, "Extreme genome reduction in Buchnera spp.: Toward the minimal genome needed for symbiotic life," PNAS Early Edition 99 (2002), 1-5.
  • Call-In Questions
    • Gabriel from Dallas wanted to ask Hugh and Fuz about Neanderthal brain size. Read our website article about human origins: "A Scientific and Biblical Response To: 'Up from the Apes. Remarkable New Evidence Is Filling in the Story of How We Became Human.' "
    • Patrick asked: Do the pyramids in Egypt line up with the stars of Orion's belt?
      • What are the major dating methods that scientists use? For a layman's discussion about the accuracy of radiometric dating methods, Hugh recommends Dr. Wiens article in Issue 7 of FACTS for FAITH. A more technical version is available on our web site.
  • E-Mail Questions
    • Jim S. asked: How can I download your radio program onto my computer?
    • Martin in the UK wanted to know: Will RTB make any products available as DVDs?
    • Rusty from Anaheim: Have Newton's laws been invalidated by General Relativity?
    • Jeff from Tacoma, WA wanted to know: Has anyone figured out the probability of the simplest bacteria that we can conceive of forming by pure chance? Fuz's origin of life talk from our 2001 creation conference. Call 1-800-482-7836 and ask for tape #A0160.
      • Kenneth Samples' Theology / Philosophy Segment
      • Is the TNIV an accurate translation of the Bible?

Creation Update #123
Whales: Evidence of Special Creation
Air-date: 05-21-2002
Hugh Ross, Fazale Rana and Krista Bontrager

  • Discoveries Discussed
    • Whale development
      • F. Spoor, S. Bajpai, et al., "Vestibular evidence for the evolution of aquatic behaviour in early cetaceans," Nature 417 (May 9, 2002), 163-168.
      • Read the article in Facts & Faith about the physiological changes needed for whale evolution.
    • Functionality of "Junk" DNA
      • Nicholas J. Kaplinsky, David M. Braun, et al, "Utility and distribution of conserved noncoding sequences in the grasses," PNAS 99 (April 30, 2002), 6147-6151.
      • Read Fuz's article, "'Junk' DNA Not so Junky?"
    • Effect of television on aggressive behavior
      • Jeffrey G. Johnson, Patricia Cohen, et al., "Television Viewing and Aggressive Behavior During Adolescence and Adulthood," Science 295 (March 29, 2002) 2468-2471.
    • Gas on deposit and Population 3 stars
      • R. Cowen, "Cosmic Remodeling: Superwinds star in early universe," Science News 161 (April 20, 2002), 244.
      • Jason Tumlinson, Mark L. Giroux, and J. Michael Shull, "Probing the first stars with hydrogen and helium recombination emission," The Astrophysical Journal 550 (March 20, 2002), L1-L5.
      • Y.-Z. Qian, W.L.W. Sargent, and G.J. Wasserburg, "The prompt inventory from very massive stars and elemental abundances in Lya systems," The Astrophysical Journal 569 (April 20, 2002), L61-L64.
      • Steve Dawson, Hyron Spinrad, et al., "A Galactic Wind AT z = 5.190," The Astrophysical Journal 570 (May 1, 2002), 92-99.
      • John E. Norris, Sean G. Ryan, Timothy C. Beers and Wako Aoki and Hiroyasu Ando, "Extremely metal-poor stars. IX. CS 22949-037 and the role of hypernovae," The Astrophysical Journal 569 (April 20, 2002), L107-L110.
  • Call-In Questions
    • Jeff from Witchita asked: How do old earth creationists resolve the sun burn rate problem? Dr. Guillermo Gonzales's article, "Rare Sun" and related news briefs about the sun appeared in FACTS AND FAITH, Issue 9. To order a copy, call our office at 1-800-482-7836. Dr. Ross also recommends his book, Creation and Time.
    • What about the amount of dust on the moon? Doesn't that prove the earth is young? Read the perspectives of Answers in Genesis and the Institute for Creation Research about moon dust.
    • Kenny from Milton, FL: Do you know anything about new evidence for extinction and rapid replacement of dinosaurs? To learn more about extinction events, read Hugh's articles, "Dinosaurs' Disappearance No Longer a Mystery" and "Life's Fragility."
      • For a more thorough summary of the problems with the many so-called
        "scientific" evidences for a young earth/universe, Krista recommends one of our apologist's web sites.
  • E-Mail Questions
    • John B. in Minneapolis asked: How did whale organs and behaviors evolve so quickly?
    • Joe W. wanted to know: Is there a way to apply the mitochondrial and chromosomal technology to test Darwinism? Listen to our discussion about bat origins from our 2-21-02 broadcast.
    • Walter wanted to make a comment about Fuz's discovery related to whales.
    • Kenneth Samples' Theology / Philosophy Segment
      • Aren't our emotions the result of chemical reactions in our brain? For more about this topic, Ken recommends: Scaling the Secular City by J.P. Moreland.
      • Truth or Fiction: Will we be able to build human colonies in space?

Creation Update #124
Evaluating Evidence for the First Life
Air-date: 05-28-2002
Hugh Ross, Fazale Rana and Krista Bontrager

  • Discoveries Discussed
    • Geo-chemical evidence for early life
      • Yuichiro Ueno, Hisayoshi Yurimoto, et al., "Ion microprobe analysis of graphic from ca. 3.8 Ga metasediments, Isua supracrustal belt, West Greenland: Relationship between metamorphism and carbon isotopic composition," Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta v. 66 n. 7 (2002), 1257-1268.
      • Christopher M. Fedo and Martin J. Whitehouse, “Metasomatic Origin of Quartz-Pyroxene Rock, Akilia, Greenland, and Implications for Earth’s Earliest Life,” Science 296 (May 24, 2002), 1448-1452.
      • Richard A. Kerr, “Reversals Reveal Pitfalls in Spotting Ancient and E.T. Life,” Science 296 (May 24, 2002), 1384-1385.
        • Watch for Hugh and Fuz's book about the origin of life in summer 2003.
    • Dinosaur extinction and replacement
      • P.E. Olsen, D.V. Kent, et al., "Ascent of Dinosaurs Linked to an Iridium Anomaly at the Triassic-Jurassic Boundary," Science 296 (May 17, 2002), 1305-1307.
    • Confirmation of an expanding universe
      • Charles Seife, "'Tired-Light' Hypothesis Gets Re-Tired," Science 292 (June 29, 2001), 2414.
      • G. Goldhaber, et al., "Timescale stretch parameterization of type Ia supernova B-band light curves," The Astrophysical Journal 558 (September 1, 2001), 359-368.
      • Xiaomin Wang, Max Tegmark, Matias Zaldarriaga, "Is cosmology consistent?" Astrophysics abstract.
      • G. Efstathiou, et al., "Evidence for a non-zero L and a low matter density from a combined analysis of the 2dF Galaxy Redshift Survey and cosmic microwave background anisotropies," Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society v. 330 n. 2 (02/2002), L29-L35.
    • Additional confirmation for a big bang beginning
      • Andrew Watson, "Cosmic Ripples Confirm Universe Speeding Up," Science 295 (March 29, 2002), 2343.
  • Call-In Questions
    • Martin from Mountain View, CA: Is the window of time between the late heavy bombardment and the first life enough evidence for miraculous intervention?
    • Mike wanted to know: What are the toughest challenges to the Christian faith? For more help to answer skeptics' questions, we recommend our television series, Creation vs. Evolution, our video, Answering Atheist Objections to Christianity and Hugh's book, The Creator and the Cosmos. For more about chaos theory, Hugh recommends, Chaos Theory Tamed.
  • Email Questions
    • Andy asked for Fuz to comment on a recent article in Science disputing evidence for early life on earth.
    • Rob asked: How long would a protein made in an origin of life scenario last before it would degrade? Would this be a bad or good thing for the origin of life under naturalistic conditions?
    • Grant wanted to know: What is Hugh's opinion of Fred Hereen's book, Show Me God?
    • John S. wanted us to respond to 10 significant problems with a big bang event. Hugh has responded to these objections in his book, The Creator and the Cosmos, 3rd edition and his article in issue 8 of FACTS for FAITH, “Tolman’s Elegant Test.” Hugh thinks that the source for these objections comes from the book: A Different Approach to Cosmology by Fred Hoyle, Geoffrey Burbidge and Jayant Narlikar.
  • Boot Camp
    • Several listeners wanted to know: Does the geography of the Mesopotamian region support a local flood? A full article on this topic is coming in issue 10 of FACTS for FAITH.
    • Kenneth Samples' Theology / Philosophy Segment segment
    • What is a Christian perspective on cremation?

Creation Update #125
The Physics of Sin
Air-date: 06-04-2002
Hugh Ross, Fazale Rana and Krista Bontrager

  • Discoveries Discussed
    • Fine-tuning of Aquaporin membrane
      • Emad Tajkhorshid, Peter Nollert, et al., "Control of the Selectivity of the Aquaporin Water Channel Family by Global Orientational Tuning," Science 296 (April 19, 2002), 525-530.
    • Vela supernova update
      • P.A. Caraveo and A. De Luca, R.P. Mignani and G.F. Bignami, "The Distance to the Vela Pulsar Gauged with Hubble Space Telescope Parallax Observations," The Astrophysical Journal 561 (November 10, 2001), 930-937.
      • For more about the issue of men living 900+ years before Noah’s flood, we recommend Hugh’s book, The Genesis Question and the article, “Long Life Spans” which appeared in Issue 5 of FACTS for FAITH.
  • Call-In Questions
    • Bruce in Fountain Valley, CA: What do scientists mean when they talk about "error bars"? Bruce is researching Barry Sutterfield's article about the velocity of light. For more about light travel time, Dr. Ross recommends an old article in Facts & Faith, “Making Light of Apologetics,” the review of Russell Humphreys’ cosmology available on our website, and our video, Unraveling Starlight and Time.
    • Scott from Portland, OR: How many species were on the ark? For a more extended discussion of this topic, we recommend Hugh’s book, The Genesis Question, and our spring/summer 2001 radio series on Noah’s Ark.
    • Ed from Medford, OR: How do you respond to the frequent use of retroviruses as support for evolution?
  • E-Mail Questions
    • Gabriel asked: How do you view the so-called vestigal leg bones found in modern whales? Fuz recommends the book, Of Pandas and People for more discussion about this issue.
  • Boot Camp
    • Tom in Schenectady, NY: What is the difference between micro and macro evolution?
    • Kenneth Samples' Theology / Philosophy Segment segment
      • Follow up to Hugh’s article, “The Physics of Sin” in Issue 8 of FACTS for FAITH.

Creation Update #126
Can E.T. Phone Home?
Air-date: 06-11-2002
Hugh Ross, Kenneth Samples, and Krista Bontrager
With special guest, Dr. Mark Clark
Order the book: Lights in the Sky and Little Green Men.

  • Discoveries Discussed
    • Hugh's recent updates to the fine-tuning of the universe
    • Evidence for the Fine-Tuning of the Galaxy-Sun-Earth-Moon System for Life Support
    • Fine-Tuning for Life in the Universe
    • An Estimate of the Probability for Attaining the Necessary Parameters for Life Support
  • Call-In Questions
    • Gabriel in Dallas, TX: What did scientists learn as a result of mDNA and y-chromosome research?

Creation Update PRIME TIME#2
Air-date: 06-13-2002
Hugh Ross, Kenneth Samples, Fuz Rana and Dave Rogstad
Order the audio tape set
God, Darwin or Both?
A Debate with Eugenie Scott, Hugh Ross and Duane Gish


Creation Update #127
Have Scientists Discovered Jupiter's Twin?
Air-date: 06-18-2002
Hugh Ross, Fuz Rana and Joe Aguirre
A Dialog about Science and Faith: Interview with Dr. Eugenie Scott

Creation Update #128
Response to "15 Answers to Creationist Nonsense" in Scientific American
Air-date: 06-25-2002
Hugh Ross, Fazale Rana and Krista Bontrager

  • Article Discussed
    • John Rennie, "15 Answers to Creationist Nonsense," Scientific American, July 2002. Article is currently available online.
    • To hear Fuz's discussion about Darwin's finches, listen to the 04-30-2002 broadcast of Creation Update.
  • Other resources related to the topic of creation vs. evolution:
    • Subscribe to the 2002 Message of the Month series -- "Layman's Guide to Evolution"
    • Shell Game of Evolution, by Hugh Ross
    • Our television series: Creation vs. Evolution
    • Our book: "Who Was Adam?"
    • Fuz's audio tape message about the origin of life from our 2001 creation conference. Call 1-800-482-7836 and ask for tape #A0160.
    • Fuz's article: "Origin of Life Models Face Off"
    • Nature's Destiny, by Michael Denton
    • Evolution: A Theory in Crisis, by Michael Denton
    • Icons of Evolution, by Jonathan Wells
  • Read Hugh's updated evidence for astronomical fine-tuning
  • Call-In Questions
    • Dave in Seattle: Is punctuated equilibrium widely accepted in the scientific community?
    • Cameron from Washington, D.C., had several questions about references for various issues related to science apologetics.

Creation Update #130
New Trends in Origin of Life Research: ISSOL 2002 Report
Air-date: 07-09-2002
Hugh Ross, Fazale Rana and Krista Bontrager

  • Articles Discussed
    • Program and abstracts from the 10th International Society for the Study of Origin of Life and 13th International Conference on the Origin of Life, ISSOL '02.
  • Presentations discussed:
    • Leslie Orgel, "The RNA World and the Origin of Life"
    • Round Table: Pre-biotic synthesis: Past, Present, Future
      • Albert Eschenmoser, "The TNA-Family of Nuclei Acid Systems: Properties and Rospects"
      • Robert Shapiro, "Monomer World"
      • Christopher H. House, Nils Hom, and the ODP Leg 201 Science Party, "Exploration of Subsurface Pacific Microbial Ecosystems"
    • Round Table: Life in the Archaean
      • Frances Westall, "On the Diversity and Distribution of Early Archaean Life"
    • Plenary Lecture: Athena Coustenis, "Titan's Exobiotical Atmosphere: Recent Revelations"
      • Francois Raulin, Yves Benilan, et al, "Titan Organic Chemistry: New Data and Exobiological Implications"
    • Extremophiles
      • Richard A. Kerr, "Deep Life in the Slow, Slow Lane," Science 296 (May 10, 2002), 1056-1058.
        • For more about extremophiles, read Dr. Rana's article: "Some Like it Hot, But First Life Did Not," Facts For Faith, Issue 9.
        • Coming soon! Hugh and Fuz will be writing up a summary of the ISSOL 2002 conference.
  • Call-In Questions
    • David in Winston Salem, NC: Has the jawless fish discovery been confirmed from the Cambrian Explosion? When did the Cambrian Explosion occur?
    • Ian from Santa Clarita, CA: Do we really know there is no speciation now? The book referenced by Dr. Ross: Paul and Anne Ehrlich, Extinction: The Causes and Consequences of the Disappearance of Species, 1981.
    • Cameron from Washington, D.C., had some questions about the Genesis 1 chronology. After the show, Cameron did some additional research about his question and turned up this article dating plants back possibly to 650 million years ago — 100 million years before the Cambrian Explosion: S.B. Hedges et al., “Molecular Evidence for the Early Colonization of Land by Fungi and Plants, Science (August 10, 2001), 1129-1133.
  • Email Questions
    • Rob wants to know: What countries have the lowest reports of UFO sightings?
  • Boot Camp
    • Why did God wait so long (billions of years) before creating the first life?
    • Kenneth Samples' Theology / Philosophy Segment segment
    • Analysis of origin of life logic: Life appeared on earth quickly. Therefore, life must be abundant in the universe.

Creation Update #131
Toumai “Man”: A Barrel Full of Questions for Darwinian Evolution
Air-date: 07-16-2002
Fazale Rana and Krista Bontrager

  • Discoveries Discussed
    • Toumai bi-pedal primate
      • Bernard Wood, "Hominid revelations from Chad," Nature 418 (July 11, 2002), 133-135.
      • Michel Brunet, Franck Guy, et al., “A new hominid from the Upper Miocene of Chad, Central Africa,” Nature 418 (July 11, 2002), 145-151.
      • Patrick Vignaud, Michel Brunet, et al., “Geology and paleontology of the Upper Miocene Toros-Menalla hominid locality, Chad,” Nature 418 (July 11, 2002), 152-155.
      • Ann Gibbons, “First Member of Human Family Uncovered,” Nature 418 (July 11, 2002), 171-173.
        • For more about the Reasons To Believe creation model about the origin of humanity, we recommend our book, "Who Was Adam?"
    • Rapid reforestation after KT extinction event
      • Kirk R. Johnson and Beth Ellis, "A Tropical Rainforest in Colorado 1.4 Million years After the Cretaceous-Tertiary Boundary," Science 296 (June 28, 2002), 2379-2383.
    • Repeated evolution — pliosaur
      • F. Robin O’Keefe, “The evolution of plesiosaur and pliosaur morphotypes in the Plesiosauria (Reptilia: Sauropterygia)” Paleobiology 28 (1) (2002), 101-112.
    • Virus self-assembly?
      • Jeronimo Cell, Aniko V. Paul, and Eckard Wimmer, "Chemical Synthesis of Poliovirus cDNA: Generation of Infectious Virus in the Absence of Natural Template," Science Xpress (July 11, 2002).
  • Call-In Questions
    • Tom in Lake Arrowhead, CA: How can I respond to the idea that there is a self-organizing principle, or 4th law of thermodynamics, in the universe? Hugh recommends the following books related to this topic: Order Out of Chaos: Man's New Dialogue With Nature, by Ilya Prigogine, and Chaos Theory Tamed by Garnett Williams.
    • George from Pasadena, OR: How do evolutionists account for the differences in the number of chromosomes between species?
  • E-Mail Questions
    • David who listens to us in Helsinki, Finland asked: Is it heresy to believe that God breathed a spirit into a bi-pedal primate?
    • Glenn in Canada asked: How can the discovery of one skull millions of years old be labeled so “revolutionary” given all the variables and error bars?
    • Benjamin asked: How does Omo Kibish and Qafzeh man fit into the RTB creation model for human origins? For more about the cultural revolution of modern humans, Fuz recommends the book, The Dawn of Human Culture by Richard Klein. It’s written from an evolutionary perspective, but provides many compelling evidences for the distinctives of modern humans.
    • Martin in Colorado wanted some advice: How can I approach my Christian friends who think that all bi-pedal primate evidence is fraudulent?
  • Boot Camp:
    • How do bi-pedal primates fit into the biblical scenario for creation?

Creation Update #132
Promising Advances in the Use of Adult Stem Cells
Air-date: 07-23-2002
Fazale Rana, Kenneth Samples and Krista Bontrager

  • Discoveries Discussed
    • Stem cell research
      • Bernard Wood, "Stem-cell competition," Nature 418 (July 4, 2002), 25-27.
      • Yuehua Jiang, Balkrishna N. Jahagirdar, et al., “Pluripotency of mesenchymal stem cells derived from adult marrow,” Nature 418 (July 4, 2002), 41-49.
      • Helen Pearson, “Your destiny, from day one,” Nature 418 (July 4, 2002), 14-15.
    • Cell membrane design
      • Stanislav D. Zakharov, Tatyana I. Rokitskay, et al., "Tuning the membrane surface potential for efficient toxin import," PNAS 99 (June 11, 2002), 8654-8659.
    • mRNA design
      • Yulei Wang, Chih Long Liu, et al., “Precision and functional specificity in mRNA decay” PNAS 99 (April 30, 2002), 5860-5865.
    • Jonathan A. Bernstein, Arkady B. Khodursky, et al., “Global analysis of mRNA decay and abundance in Escherichia coli at single-gene resolution using two-color fluorescent DNA microarrays,” PNAS 99 (July 23, 2002), 9697-9702.
  • Call-In Questions
    • George from Pasadena, OR: How are identical twins affected in light of this greater understanding of the early stages of embryonic development?
  • Email Questions
    • Grant from Warrensburg, MO: What arguments can’t young-earth creationists use that old-earth creationists could use as positive evidence for design against naturalism?
    • John wanted to ask a follow up to our discussion about biochemical design: Is life simply the correct energy and materials in the proper order? Here is the bibliographic information for the paper mentioned by Fuz: Michael Polanyi, "Life's Irreducible Structure," Science 160 (1968),1308-12.
    • Eugene wanted to know if peppered moths were a evolutionary hoax. For a more extended discussion of this issue, Fuz recommends the book, Icons of Evolution.

Creation Update #133
Perspectives on the Rare Earth debate on
Air-date: 07-30-2002
Hugh Ross and Krista Bontrager

  • Discoveries Discussed
    • Read the debate about the book, Rare Earth, on the web site. Listen to our interview with Rare Earth author, Don Brownlee (show #121) or order the cassette.
    • Fine-tuning of subduction
      • Klaus Regenauer-Lieb, Dave A. Yuen, and Joy Branlund, "The Initiation of Subduction: Criticality by Addition of Water?" Science 294 (October 19, 2001), 578-580.
        • For more information about the fine-tuning of the geo-physics of the earth, see Hugh’s article in issue 10 of FACTS for FAITH, “The Faint Sun Paradox.”
    • Triassic-Jurassic extinction — 10,000 year window?
      • P.E. Olsen, D.V. Kent, et al., "Ascent of Dinosaurs Linked to an Iridium Anomaly at the Triassic-Jurassic Boundary," Science 296 (May 17, 2002), 1305-1307.
      • Richard A. Kerr, “Did an Impact Trigger the Dinosaurs’ Rise?” Science 296 (May 17, 2002), 1215-1216.
  • Call in Questions
    • James from Garland, TX: How does electromagnetism affect plate tectonics?
    • Morgan from Fayetteville, TN: How do space sugars fit into the creation model? For more about RTB’s testable creation model, we recommend our Creation Model Overview pack.
    • Walter in Dallas, TX: Does the Bible teach that God pre-determines our thoughts? For a scientific perspective on the predestination/free-will debate, Hugh recommends his book, Beyond the Cosmos.
    • Rusty from Oklahoma, OK: Does God predestine individuals or a redemptive plan?
    • John from Fountain Valley, CA: Wanted Hugh and Ken to respond to his analogy for predestination.
    • Cameron from Washington, D.C.: How does Hugh interpret Genesis 1:16? Did God make the sun on creation day 4? For more about Genesis 1, Hugh recommends the books, The Genesis Debate and The Genesis Question.
  • Email Questions
    • Julian from Memphis: Is time travel possible? Hear our discussion of time travel on a recent edition of Creation Update, March 26, 2002.

Creation Update #134
Are Genetics a New Excuse for Abuse?
Air-date: 08-06-2002
Hugh Ross, Fuz Rana and Krista Bontrager

  • Discoveries Discussed
    • Earth-based evidence for the late heavy bombardment
      • Ronny Schoenberg, et al, "Tungsten isotope evidence from ~3.8-Gyr metamorphosed sediments for early meteorite bombardment of the earth," Nature 418 (July 25, 2002), 403-405.
    • Possible fine-tuning of special relativity
      • Giovanni Amelino-Camelia, “Special treatment,” Nature 418 (July 4, 2002), 34-35.
    • Genetics of Child Abuse
      • Erik Stokstad, “Violent Effects of Abuse Tied to Gene,” Science 297 (August 2, 2002), 752.
      • Avshalom Caspi, et al, “Role of Genotype in the Cycle of Violence in Maltreated Children,” Science 297 (August 2, 2002), 851-854.
  • Call-In Questions
    • George from Pasadena, CA: How did the early earth go from a molten crust to liquid water so quickly?
    • Kenny from Milton, FL: What does Hugh think of the “triple point” analogy for the Trinity? For more about analogies of the Trinity, Hugh recommends his book, Beyond the Cosmos. Ken Samples recommends his article in FACTS for FAITH, “Thinking About the Trinity: One What and Three Whos” and St. Augustine’s book, On the Trinity.
    • Brian from San Gabriel, CA: Isn’t the scientific record more exhaustive than the epochs in Genesis 1?
    • Cameron from Washington, D.C.: Could you please comment on Robersonian rearrangement of chromosome structures?
    • Ian from Santa Clarita, CA: Could you comment on the difference between foreknowledge and predestination? For more about the Augustinian/Calvinistic/Reformed view of predestination, Ken would recommend the book, Chosen by God and the ministry of R.C. Sproul at
    • Ed from Medford, OR: Will Reasons To Believe ever publish a book about the testable creation model? For a summary of our testable creation model, our Creation Model Overview pack is available.
  • Email Questions
    • Dan from Grandview, MO: How are scientists able to tell which meteor craters on other planets resulted from the late heavy bombardment? How are they able to determine the age of these craters?
  • Boot Camp

Creation Update #135
Is the Speed of Light Slowing Down?
Air-date: 08-13-2002
Hugh Ross, Fuz Rana and Krista Bontrager

  • Discoveries Discussed
    • Use of the malaria parasite as a confirmation of the first humans:
      • Jianbing Mu, et al., "Chromosome-wide SNPs reveal an ancient origin for Plasmodium falciparum" Nature 418 (July 18, 2002), 323-326.
        • For more information about origin of humanity, we recommend our video series, “Who Was Adam?” and the article, “A Scientific and Biblical Response To: ‘Up from the Apes. Remarkable New Evidence Is Filling in the Story of How We Became Human’ Time, August 23, 1999,” by Fuz Rana, Richard Deem, and Hugh Ross.
    • Use of haplotype maps as a confirmation of the first humans:
      • Jennifer Couzin, “New Mapping Project Splits Community,” Science 296 (May 24, 2002), 1391-1393.
      • Stacey B. Gabriel, Stephen F. Schaffner, et al., “The Structure of Haplotype Blocks in the Human Genome,” Science 296 (June 21, 2002), 2225-2229.
    • Response to Paul Davies paper and the speed of light
      • Paul C.W. Davies, Tamara M. Davis and Charles H. Lineweaver, “Cosmology: Black holes constrain varying constants,” Nature 418 (August 8, 2002), 602-603.
      • Read Answers in Genesis’s response to Paul Davies’s article.
      • For more about the speed of light, we recommend our video, “Unraveling Starlight and Time,” and our radio show, (show #136) available through our web site.
      • Hear Dr. Ross discuss the theory of quintessence (show #119) on a previous radio show.
    • Source of Nitrogen in the universe:
      • John E. Norris, Sean G. Ryan, Timothy C. Beers and Wako Aoki and Hiroyasu Ando, “Extremely Metal-Poor Stars. IX. CS 22949-037 and the Role of Hypernovae,” The Astrophysical Journal 569 (April 20, 2002), L107-L110.
  • Call-In Questions
    • Mark from Mackinaw, IL: Why couldn’t Noah’s flood have been global? For more about Noah’s flood, we recommend Hugh’s book, The Genesis Question and our radio series about Noah’s flood (beginning with show #207).
    • Rusty from Oklahoma, OK: Does Stephen Hawking think that time began and ended at the same time? For more about Hawking and his contribution to the theory of relativity, Hugh recommends his book, The Creator and the Cosmos.
    • Dave in Seattle: Do plants have feelings? For more about animal and plant death before Adam, we recommend our audio tape series, Life and Death in Eden.
  • Email Questions:
    • Gerald from Albuquerque, NM: If the speed of light is changing, would this cancel the anthropic principle? Access Hugh’s latest design evidences.
  • Theology/Philosophy segment:
    • Do quantum mechanics and chaos theory prove open-theism?
    • For more about our perspective on quantum mechanics, we recommend our video, “Quantum Apologetics.”
    • For more on chaos theory, Hugh recommends the book, Chaos Theory Tamed.
    • Ken’s recommendations for more about a classical view of God: The Frontiers of Science, by John Jefferson Davis and The Concept of God, by Ron Nash.
  • Boot Camp:
    • From Gene: If God didn’t create the sun, moon and stars until Day 4, what did He make on Day 1?
    • From Lauren: Does Reasons To Believe think that the earth is young or old?
      • For more information addressing these questions and more related to Genesis 1-11 and the scientific record, Dr. Ross recommends his book, The Genesis Question.

Creation Update #136
Human Language Gene
Air-date: 08-20-2002
Fuz Rana and Krista Bontrager


  • Discoveries Discussed
    • Language gene in humans
      • Steven Pinker, "Talk of genetics and vice versa" Nature 413 (October 4, 2001), 465-466.
      • Cecilia S. L. Lai, Simon E. Fisher, et al., "A forkhead-domain gene is mutated in severe speech and language disorder" Nature 413 (October 4, 2001), 519-523.
      • Wolfgang Enard, Molly Przeworski, et al., "Molecular evolution of FOXP2, a gene involved in speech and language" Nature advance online publication (August 14, 2002).
    • Other genetic similarities and differences between chimps and humans
      • B. Bower, "The DNA Divide: Chimps, people differ in brain’s gene activity" Science News 161 (April 13, 2001), 227-228.
      • Wolfgang Enard, Philipp Khaitovich, et al. “Intra- and Interspecific Variation in Primate Gene Expression Patterns,” Science (April 12, 2002), 340-343.
      • Derek E. Wildman, “A map of the common chimpanzee genome,” BioEssays 24 (2002), 490-493.
      • Read Fuz’s article, “Humans and Chimps Differ” (Connections 2001 Quarter 3) for more of his perspective about the genetic differences between primates.
      • For more about our perspective on the origin of humans, we recommend our video series, “Who Was Adam?
    • Eukaryotic big bang
      • Joel B. Dacks, Alexandra Marinets, et al., "Analyses of RNA Polymerase II Genes from Free-Living Protists: Phylogeny, Long Branch Attraction, and the Eukaryotic Big Bang," Molecular Biology and Evolution v. 19, n. 6 (2002), 830-840.
      • David Moreira, Herve Le Guyader, and Herve Philippe, "Unusually High Evolutionary Rate of the Elongation Factor 1a Genes from the Ciliophora and Its Impact on the Phylogeny of Eukaryotes," Molecular Biology and Evolution v. 16, n. 2 (1999), 234-245.
      • Andrew J. Roger, Olof Sandblom, W. Ford Doolittle, and Herve Philippe, "An Evaluation of Elongation Factor 1a as a Phylogenetic Marker for Eukaryotes," Molecular Biology and Evolution v. 16, n. 2 (1999), 218-233.
    • Myosin molecular motor
      • M. Yusuf Ali, Sotaro Uemura, et al., "Myosin V is a left-handed spiral motor on the right-handed actin helix," Nature Structural Biology v. 9, n. 6 (June 2002), 464-467.
    • Examples of convergence
      • Molecular convergence in primates
        • Fabrice Dupuy, Agnes Germot, et al., "a1,4-Fucosyltransferase Activity: A Significant Function in the Primate Lineage has Appeared Twice Independently," Molecular Biology and Evolution v. 19, n. 6 (2002), 815-824.
        • Angelina S. Palma, Cidalia Vila-Verde, et al., "A novel plant a4-fucosyltransferase (Vaccinium myrtillus L.) synthesises the Lewis adhesion determinant," FEBS Letters 499 (2001), 235-238.
      • Kangaroos, wallabies and ungulates
        • D.O. Fisher, S.P. Blomberg, and I.P.F. Owens, "Covergent maternal care strategies in ungulates and macropods," Evolution 56 (2002), 167-176.
      • Dolphin mirror self-recognition
        • Diana Reiss and Lori Marino, "Mirror self-recognition in the bottlenose dolphin: A case of cognitive convergence," PNAS 98 (May 8, 2001), 5937-5942.
  • Email Questions:
    • Patrick had some follow up questions to our recent discussion of the Discovery Channel documentary, “The Real Eve.”
    • Walter R. asked: What is the shortest self-replicator with exponential growth currently known?
  • Theology/Philosophy segment:

Creation Update #137
“Disturbing Implications” of the Cosmological Constant
Air-date: 08-27-2002
Hugh Ross, Fuz Rana and Krista Bontrager

  • Discoveries Discussed
    • Fine-tuning of the cosmological constant
      • Philip Ball, "Is physics watching over us?" Nature web publication (August 13, 2002).
      • L. Dyson, M. Kleban and L. Susskind, “Disturbing implications of a cosmological constant,” Preprint (2002).
    • More verification of the cosmological constant
      • Charles R. Keeton, “Rethinking Lensing and L,” The Astrophysical Journal 575 (August 10, 2002), L1-L4.
        • For more information about the fine-tuning of the universe, see Hugh’s book, The Creator and the Cosmos.
    • SETI update
      • T. Joseph W. Lazio and Jill Tarter and peter R. Backus, “Megachannel extraterrestrial assay candidates: no transmissions from intrinsically steady sources,” The Astronomical Journal 124 (July 2002), 560-564.
    • Impact event
      • Gary R. Byerly, Donald R. Lowe, Joseph L. Wooden, Xiaogang Xie, “An Archean Impact Layer from the Pilbara and Kaapvaal Cratons,” Science 297 (August 23, 2002), 1325-1327.
    • Biodiversity
      • Shana E. Peters and Michael Foote, “Biodiversity in the Phanerozoic: a reinterpretation,” Paleobiology v. 27, n. 4 (2001), 583-601.
  • Call-in Questions:
    • James from Garland, TX wanted clarification about our creation timeline and the date for bi-pedal primates.
    • Patrick from Eastbrookfield, MA: Could both the young-earth and the old-earth perspectives be true?
    • George from Pasadena, CA: What does the “vast array” refer to in Genesis 2:1?
  • Email Questions:
    • Kim from Denmark asked: How does Dr. Ross figure out all of those probabilities for the fine-tuning of the universe?
    • David wanted to know: Are the probabilities calculated and the methods used to get them commonly accepted by the scientific community?
    • Mark S. wanted to know: If the Arizona crater could be dated to 50,000 years ago, could it be an evidence against a global flood?
      • Truth or Fiction: Are crop circles a valid evidence of UFO activity?

Creation Update #138
Quantized Red Shifts: Evidence of an Earth-Centered Universe?
Air-date: 09-03-2002
Hugh Ross, Dave Rogstad, Fuz Rana and Krista Bontrager

  • Discoveries Discussed
    • Quantized Red Shifts
      • D. Russell Humphreys, "Our Galaxy is the Center of the Universe, ‘Quantized’ Red Shifts Show," Technical Journal 16 (2) (2002).
      • D. Russell Humphreys, “ The Battle for the Cosmic Center,” Impact 350 (August 2002), i-iv.
      • E. Hawkins, S.J. Maddox and M.R. Merrifield, "No Periodicities in 2dF Redshift Survey Data," Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society (August 6, 2002) in press.
    • Sticky gecko feet
      • Kellar Autumn, et al., “Evidence for van der Waals adhesion in gecko setae,” PNAS Early Edition 99 (2002).
      • K. Autumn, et al., “Adhesive force of a single gecko foot-hair,” Nature 405 (June 8, 2000), 681-685.
    • Distance to the Large Magellanic Cloud
      • G. P. DiBenedetto, “On the absolute calibration of the cepheid distance scale using Hipparcos parallaxes,” The Astronomical Journal 124 (August 2002), 1213-1220.
      • Ignasi Ribas, Edward L. Fitzpatrick, et al., “Fundamental properties and distances of Large Magellanic Cloud eclipsing binaries. III. Eros 1044,” The Astrophysical Journal 574 (August 1, 2002), 771-782.
      • N. Panagia, “Distance to SN 1987 A and the LMC,” New Views of the Magellanic Clouds,” IAU Symposium #190, edited by Y.-H. Chu, N. Suntzeff, J. Hesser & D. Bohlender, (1999), 549.
  • Call-In Questions
    • Elaine wanted to know: Has Dr. Ross heard of Planet X? Hugh discussed this topic extensively on the February 19, 2002 broadcast of Creation Update.
    • George from Pasadena, CA: Does gravity affect the speed of light?
    • Ian from Santa Clarita, CA: What does “heavens” refer to in Genesis 1:1? Read Hugh’s extensive discussion of the meaning of the phrase “heavens and the earth” in his book, The Genesis Question.
    • Greg from Oklahoma City, OK: What is the significance of the recent Toumai man discovery?
      • Fuz discussed this discovery in an extended manner on the July 16, 2002 broadcast of Creation Update.
      • We also recommend our book, “Who Was Adam?” and our web paper, “A Scientific and Biblical Response To: ‘Up from the Apes. Remarkable New Evidence Is Filling in the Story of How We Became Human’” by Hugh Ross, Fuz Rana and Richard Deem.
  • Email Questions
    • Kenny from Milton, FL: Didn’t Kenyanthropus man also cause a problem for the Lucy fossil?
    • Gabriel from Sacramento, CA: How does Hugh Ross figure out the probability that Moses would put the creation miracles in order?

Creation Update #139
Earth Formed Faster than Originally Thought
Air-date: 09-10-2002
Hugh Ross, Fuz Rana and Krista Bontrager


  • Discoveries Discussed
    • Earth formed faster than first thought
      • A.G.W. Cameron, "Birth of a Solar System," Nature 418 (August 29, 2002), 924-925.
      • T. Kleine, C. Munker, K. Mezger and H. Palme, “ Rapid accretion and early core formation on asteroids and the terrestrial planets from Hf-W chronometry,” Nature 418 (August 29, 2002), 952-.955
      • Qingzhu Yin, et al., "A short timescale for terrestrial planet formation from Hf-W chronometry of meteroites," Nature 418 (August 29, 2002), 949-951.
      • Harri A.T. Vanhala and Alan P. Boss, “Injection of radioactivities into the forming solar system,” The Astrophysical Journal 575 (August 20, 2002), 1144-1150.
    • Chondridic meteorites
      • Yuri Amerlin, et al., “Lead Isotopic Ages of Chondrules and Calcium-Aluminum-Rich Inclusions,” Science 297 (September 6, 2002), 1678-1683.
      • Jamie Gilmour, “The Solar System’s First Clocks,” Science 297 (September 6, 2002), 1658-1659.
    • DNA computing
      • Roy Bar-Ziv, Tsvi Tlusty and Albert Libchaber, “Protein-DNA computation by stochastic assembly cascade,” PNAS 99 (September 3, 2002), 11589-11592.
    • Molecular motor update
      • Spencer Campbell and Anthony Maxwell, “The ATP-operated Clamp of Human DNA Topoisomerase Iia: Hyperstimulation of ATPase by ‘Piggy-back’ Binding,” Journal of Molecular Biology 320 (2002), 171-188.
      • Keehwan Kwon and James T. Stivers, “Flourescence Spectroscopy Studies of Vaccinia Type IB DNA Topoisomerase,” The Journal of Biological Chemistry 277 (January 4, 2002), 345-352.
        • For more about responding to criticisms to Paley’s Watchmaker Argument, we recommend our video series, “Answering Atheist Objections to Christianity.”
  • Call-in Questions
    • George from Pasadena, CA: What is the design and fine-tuning in stars in the observable universe? Is it true that you have to have homochyral amino acids in proteins?
    • John from Tallahassee, FL: Do double slit experiments support the many worlds hypothesis?
      • Resources Hugh recommends related to this topic:
        • Quantum Reality: Beyond the New Physics: An excursion into metaphysics and the meaning of reality, by Nick Herbert
        • Quantum Physics: Illusion or Reality?, by Alastair Rae
        • Philosophical Consequences of Quantum Theory: Reflections on Bell’s Theorem, edited by James T. Cushing and Ernan McMullin (this is the “10 views” book Hugh mentions)
  • Email Questions
  • Boot Camp: What is “faith”?
    • For more about this topic, Ken and Krista recommend: The Word of God and the Mind of Man, by Ron Nash and Saved by Grace, by Anthony Hoekema.

Creation Update #140
Missing Anti-Matter...Found!
Air-date: 09-17-2002
Hugh Ross, Fuz Rana and Krista Bontrager


  • Discoveries Discussed
    • Evidence for Neanderthal burial rituals
      • Bruno Maureille, “ A lost Neanderthal neonate found,” Nature 419 (September 5, 2002), 33-34.
        • For more information about our testable creation model for human origins, we recommend our video series, “Who Was Adam?
    • Anti-matter
      • Michael Peskin, “The matter with antimatter,” Nature 419 (September 5, 2002), 24-27.
    • Nitrogen fixation
      • Oliver Einsle, et al., “Nitrogenase MoFe-Protein at 1.16 A Resolution: A Central Ligand in the FeMo-Cofactor,” Science 297 (September 6, 2002), 1696-1700.
        • For more about molecular motors and man’s attempt to replicate their functions, Fuz recommends the book: Travels to the Nanoworld.
    • Ostrich study — severs bird-dino link
      • Alan Feduccia and Julie Nowicki, “The hand of birds revealed by early ostrich embryos,” Naturwissenschaften online preprint (August 2002).
  • Call-in Questions
    • Gary in Maine: If Darwinian evolution is true, shouldn’t we see evidence for change in DNA?
    • George in Pasadena: Is string theory a proof of the Grand Unified Theory? For more about string theory, Hugh recommends his book, Beyond the Cosmos.
    • Cameron in Washington, D.C.: Is there any observational support for the limits of phenotypic plasticity? The book mentioned by Fuz Rana is available through Evolution Explosion, by Stephen Palumbi.
  • Email Questions
    • Mike from San Antonio, TX: Shouldn’t Fuz Rana have said “silicon” last week in his discussion about DNA computing instead of “silicone”?
    • Tim, RTB representative in Japan: Hasn’t Venus’s surface been reformed through volcanic eruptions, eliminating evidence of the late heavy bombardment?
  • Theology/Philosophy segment
    • Is there credible evidence for the Bible code?
    • John D. wants to know: Even if the Bible code is bogus, couldn’t it be used as a powerful apologetic argument for Christianity?
      • For more about the Bible code, we recommend:
        • Our series of web articles
        • Who wrote the Bible code?

Creation Update #141
Molecular Convergence
Air-date: 09-24-2002
Fuz Rana and Krista Bontrager


  • Discoveries Discussed
    • More evidence for genetic differences between Neanderthals and humans
      • Ralf W. Schmitz, et al., "The Neanderthal type site revisited: Interdisciplinary investigations of skeletal remains from the Neander Valley, Germany," PNAS 99 (October 1, 2002), 13342-13347.
        • For more about our testable creation model for the origin of man, Fuz recommends our book, “Who Was Adam?
    • Molecular convergence
      • Harold H. Zakon, "Convergent Evolution on the Molecular Level," Brain, Behavior and Evolution 59 (2002), 250-261.
      • Simon J. Charnock, et al., “Convergent evolution sheds light on the anti b-elimination mechanism common to family 1 and 10 polysaccharide lyases,” PNAS 99 (September 17, 2002), 12067-12072.
      • Brian C. Tripp, Kerry Smith, and James G. Ferry, “Carbonic Anhydrase: New Insights for an Ancient Enzyme,” Journal of Biological Chemistry 276 (December 28, 2001), 48615-48618.
      • Eleonora Carosa, et al., “Structure and Expression of the Scallop W-Crystallin Gene,” The Journal of Biological Chemistry 277 (January 4, 2002), 656-664.
  • Call-in Questions
    • Kenny from Milton, FL: Is there anatomical evidence that homo erectus was not a human ancestor?
    • Dave from Seattle, WA: Are bi-pedal primates evidence of “transitional forms”?
    • Becky from Branson, MO: Is the structure of the eye a good or bad argument for supernatural design? For more about this topic, Fuz recommends:
      • Darwin’s Black Box, Michael Behe
      • “The Inverted Retina: Maladaptation or Pre-adaptation?,” Origins and Design, Issue 37, Michael Denton
    • Jim from Portland, OR: Is the young-earth model for natural selection valid?
  • Email Questions
    • Rusty from Anaheim, CA: How do evolutionists explain convergence? How could their explanations be scientifically tested?
    • Aaron from Santa Clarita, CA: How can I answer an atheist rebuttal to molecular motors?
    • Tim from Tsukuba, Japan: Are NASA experiments demonstrating how complex organic molecules can form under natural conditions in space valid?
  • Theology/Philosophy Segment
    • Rob Gibson wanted to know: Could forensic science provide a model for discovering whether a natural phenomenon is the result of natural processes or agency?
      • “How do we distinguish design from natural processes and chance?” Intelligent Design, William Dembski

Creation Update PRIMETIME #3
Interview with Young-Earth Astronomer, Dr. Danny Faulkner
Air-date: 09-26-2002
Hugh Ross, Dave Rogstad and Krista Bontrager

  • Resources Highlighted
    • The Genesis Debate, ed. David Hagopian
    • Comets, Kuiper belt and Oort Cloud
      • Brett Gladman, et al, “The Structure of the Kuiper Belt: Size Distribution and Radial Extent,” Astronomical Journal 122 (2001), 1051-1066.
      • P. Nurmi, M . J. Valtonen, J. Q. Zheng, and H. Rickman, “Long-Term Evolution of Oort Cloud Comets: Capture of Comets,” Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 333 (2002), 835-846.
      • Harold F. Levison, Luke Jones, and Martin J. Duncan, “The Origin of Halley-Type Comets: Probing the Inner Oort Cloud,” Astronomical Journal 121 (2001), 2253-2267.
      • S. Alan Stern and Paul R. Weissman, “Rapid Collisional Evolution of Comets During the Formation of the Oort Cloud,” Nature 409 (2001), 589-591.
      • J. Q. Zheng and M. J. Valtonen, “On the Probability That a Comet That Has Escaped from Another Solar System Will Collide with the Earth,” Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 304 (1999), 579-582.
      • D. E. Trilling, R. H. Brown, and A. S. Rivkin, “Circumstellar Dust Disks Around Stars With Known Planetary Companions,” Astrophysical Journal 529 (2000), 499-505.
      • F. L. Whipple, “Oort-Cloud and Kuiper-Belt Comets,” Planetary and Space Science 48 (2000), 1011-1019
      • M. C. Sanctis, M. T. Capria, and A. Coradini, “Thermal Evolution and Differentiation of Edgeworth-Kuiper Belt Objects,” Astronomical Journal 121 (2001), 2792-2799
      • P. Nurmi, M. J. Valtonen, and J. Q. Zheng, “Periodic Variation of Oort Cloud Flux and Cometary Impacts on the Earth and Jupiter,” Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 327 (2001), 1367-1376
      • P. Nurmi, M. J. Valtonen, J. Q. Zheng, and H. Rickman, “Long-Term Evolution of Oort Cloud Comets: Capture of Comets,” Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 333 (2002), 835-846
      • Ida Shigeru, John Larwood, and Andreas Burkert, “Evidence for Early Stellar Encounters in the Orbital Distribution of Edgeworth-Kuiper Belt Objects,” Astrophysical Journal 528 (2000), 351-356.
  • Call-in Questions
    • Kenny from Milton, FL: How do young-earth creationists come up with a range of dates for creation?
    • George from Pasadena, CA: Does Danny Faulkner hold to Russell Humphreys’s cosmology?
    • Joel from Phoenix, AZ: Why does the universe have to be so big?

Creation Update #142
Air-date: 10-01-2002
Information Theory and the Young-Earth Speciation Model
Hugh Ross, Fuz Rana and Krista Bontrager

  • Discoveries Discussed
    • Measuring the distance to a supernova
      • Frederick M. Walter and James M. Lattimer, "A Revised Parallax and its Implications for RX J185635-3754," The Astrophysical Journal 576 (September 10, 2002), L145-L148.
    • Parallax measurements confirmed
      • G. Fritz Benedict, B.E. McArthur, et al., "Astrometry with the Hubble Space Telescope: A Parallax of the Fundamental Distance Calibrator d Cephei," The Astronomical Journal 124 (September 2002), 1695-1705.
      • Benjamin F. Lane, Michelle J. Creech-Eakman and Tyler E. Nordgren, "Long-Baseline Interferometric Observations of Cepheids," The Astrophysical Journal 573 (July 1, 2002), 330-337.
    • Uranium-eating bacteria
      • Yohey Suzuki, Shelly D. Kelly, et al., "Nanometre-size products of uranium bioreduction," Nature 419 (September 12, 2002), 134.
  • Call-in Questions
    • Brian in Indiana:
      • What does Dr. Ross think about evidence of human and dinosaur footprints in the Paluxy River bed in Texas?
        • A couple of helpful web sites that relate to this topic:
        • The Paluxy Dinosaur/"Man Track" Controversy by Glen Kuban
        • Institute for Biblical and Scientific Studies
      • Can you give me more information about the International Council for Biblical Inerrancy?
        • How the ICBI Got Started
        • Read the entire Chicago Statement on Biblical Inerrancy
      • Where is the center of the universe?
        • A couple of resources related to this topic:
        • Relativity Simply Explained, Martin Gardner
        • The Universe in a Nutshell, Stephen Hawking
    • George in Pasadena: Is the sun shrinking? For more about this, read Hugh's article, "Sun's Stable Fluctuations."
  • Email Questions re: Fuz's comments related to the young-earth model for speciation
    • Jon Happel wanted to know: Is Fuz familiar with Lee Spetner's book, "Not by Chance"?
    • Robert Van de Water asked: If information content is determined by "context" doesn't this open the door to Darwinism?
      • For an introduction to information theory, Fuz recommends the book, Information and the Origin of Life, by Bernd-Olaf K¸ppers.
  • Theology/Philosophy Segment: What is post-modernism?
    • Some resources related to our discussion:
      • Post-Modern Times, Gene Veith
      • Truth or Consequences: The Promise and Perils of Post-Modernism, Millard Erickson
      • The Word of God and the Mind of Man, Ron Nash

Creation Update #143
Air-date: 10-08-2002
Did NASA Go to the Moon?
Hugh Ross, Fuz Rana and Krista Bontrager
With special guest, Gen. Robert Stewart (ret.)

  • Discoveries Discussed
    • More genetic differences between humans and chimps
      • Roy J. Britten, "Divergence between samples of chimpanzee and human DNA sequences is 5%, counting indels," PNAS 99 (October 15, 2002), 12633-13635.
    • Quaoar - new discovery in the Kuiper Belt
      • Usha Lee McFarling, "Pluto's Not So Alone Out There, It Appears," Los Angeles Times (October 8, 2002), A17.
      • Deborah Zabarenko, "Out Beyond Pluto, Astronomers Find Something New," Reuters News Service (October 7, 2002).
    • Supernova confirmation of the cosmological constant
      • Narcisco Benitez, Adam Riess, et al., "The magnification of SN 1997ff, the farthest known supernova," The Astrophysical Journal Letters 577 (September 20, 2002), L1-L4.
    • Kepler mission
      • Jack J. Lissauer, "Extrasolar planets," Nature 419 (September 26, 2002), 355-358.
      • Jack J. Lissauer, "Box 1: The Kepler Mission," Nature 419 (September 26, 2002), 358.
  • Call-in Questions
    • Stuart in Danville, VA: Where do dinosaurs fit into the Biblical chronology?
    • Kenny in Milton, FL: Does Fuz's discovery about human/chimp genetic differences affect the date for the first humans?
    • Mark from Milwaukee, WI: What is the origin of language?
    • George from Pasadena, CA: Could the human brain last eternally?
    • Mike from Venice, CA: What will the Kepler mission help us find?
      • Truth or Fiction: Did NASA go to the moon? with General Robert Stewart (ret.)
  • Theology/Philosophy segment: How are humans different than animals?
    • 6 Ways Humans Differ from the Animal Kingdom, by Kenneth Samples:
      1. Human beings have an inherent spiritual and religious nature.
      2. Human beings possess unique intellectual, cultural and communicative abilities.
      3. Human beings are conscious of time, reality and truth.
      4. Human beings possess a conscience and have a value system.
      5. Human beings are uniquely inventive and technological.
      6. Human beings possess aesthetic taste and appreciation for more than just practical purposes.
        • For more information about the Christian perspective on humans:
          • Anthony Hoekema, Created in God's Image

Creation Update #144
Air-date: 10-15-2002
God and Time
Hugh Ross, Fuz Rana and Joe Aguirre

  • Discoveries Discussed
    • Polarization of the Cosmic Background Radiation
      • R. Cowen, "Big Bang Confirmed: Seeing twists and turns of primordial light," Science News 162 (September 28, 2002), 195.
    • Chemistry of Planetary Systems
      • G. Zhao, Y.Q. Chen, H. M. Qiu and Z.W. Li, "Chemical abundances of 15 extrasolar planet host stars," The Astronomical Journal 124 (October 2002), 2224-2232.
    • Information Content in Sugars
      • Mark A. Lehrman, "Oligosaccharide-based Information in Endoplasmic Reticulum Quality Control and Other Biological Systems," Journal of Biological Chemistry 276 (March 23, 2001), 8623-8626.
    • Toumai Man update
      • M.H. Wolpoff, B. Senut, M. Pickford, and J. Hawks, "Sahelanthropus or 'Sahelpithecus'?" Nature 419 (2002), 581-582.
      • M. Brunet, reply, Nature 419 (2002), 582.
  • Call-in Questions
    • Dan from Grandview, MO: When do gravitational waves arrive in a supernova? When would you feel the gravitational effects?
    • Walter from Dallas, TX: Is it possible to reverse causality?
    • John from Huntsville, AL: How do various Christian views of the millennium affect our view of time? Hugh recommends the books, God and Time: 4 Views, Gregory Ganssle (editor) and The Meaning of the Millennium (Alan Ladd, editor).
  • Theology/Philosophy Segment:
    • "If God made everything, then who made God?"

Creation Update #145
Air-date: 10-22-2002
Christianity: A Historical Religion
 Hugh Ross, Fuz Rana and Joe Aguirre

  • Discoveries Discussed
    • Origin of life in freshwater
      • Pierre-Alain Monnard, Charles L. Apel, Anastassia Kanavarioti, and David W. Deamer, "Influence of Ionic Inorganic Solutes on Self-Assembly and Polymerization Processes Related to Early Forms of Life: Implications for a Prebiotic Aqueous Medium," Astrobiology 2, number 2 (2002), 139-152.
    • Confirmation of the Cosmological Constant - F-R Type IIb radio galaxies
      • Ruth A. Daly and Erick J. Guerra, "Quintessence, Cosmology and Fanaroff-Riley Type IIb Radio Galaxies," The Astronomical Journal 124 (October 2002), 1831-1838.
      • Philip Ball, "Is physics watching over us?" Nature (August 13, 2002).
      • L. Dyson, M. Kleban, and L. Susskind, "Disturbing Implications of a Cosmological Constant," pre-print (August 1, 2002).
    • Jerusalem ossuary box
      • Andre Lemaire, "Burial box of James the brother of Jesus: Earliest archeological evidence for Jesus found in Jerusalem," Biblical Archeology Review (November/December 2002).
  • Call-In Questions
    • Stuart from Danville, VA: What do you think about the Ohio public schools trying to teach creation?
    • Joseph from Seattle, WA:
    • Rusty from Oklahoma, OK: What do you think about the recent announcement that a burial box inscribed with the name of Jesus on it? Is it credible?
    • Ed from Medford, OR: Has Dr. Ross read Glen Morton's review of his book, The Genesis Question?
  • Theology/Philosophy Segment
    • Why does it matter if the Christian faith is historically based?

Creation Update #146
Air-date: 10-29-2002
Blue Stragglers and Black Holes
 Hugh Ross, Fuz Rana and Krista Bontrager

  • Discoveries Discussed
    • Blue stragglers
      • Rod Bernitt, "Globular clusters and the challenge of blue straggler stars," TJ 16 (2002), 5-7.
    • Intermediate mass black holes
      • Simon F. Portegies Zwart and Stephen L. W. McMillan, "The runaway growth of intermediate-mass black holes in dense star clusters," The Astrophysical Journal 576 (September 10, 2002), 899-907.
      • R. Cowen, "Hole in the Middle: Are midsize black holes the missing link?" Science News 162 (September 21, 2002), 180.
    • Super giant black hole at the center of the Milky Way galaxy
      • R. Schodel, et al., "A star in a 15.2-year orbit around the supermassive black hole at the centre of the Milky Way," Nature 419 (October 17, 2002), 694-696.
    • DNA parity - biochemical design
      • Donall A. Mac Donaill, "A parity code interpretation of nucleotide alphabet composition," Chemical Communications (2002), 2062-2063.
  • Call-in Questions
    • George in Pasadena, CA: Has Hugh read the latest article in "Acts and Facts" about Palonium halos?
    • Becky from Branson, MO: The popular concept of blind faith seems to undermine the entire Christian faith in general, doesn't it?
    • Mike from Columbus, IN: Can Ken Samples explain more about the ad futurum fallacy? How can I get a copy of the paper called, "The Disturbing Implications of the Cosmological Constant" (August 15, 2002 version)?
    • Kenny from Milton, FL: 1) Is the "James" on the ossuary box really the brother of Jesus? 2) Did monotheism historically precede polytheism? 3) Do we know the water level for the ancient Persian Gulf?
  • Email Questions
    • Bekka wants to know: Why doesn't the Bible mention dinosaurs?
  • Theology segment
    • Should Christian parents allow their children participate in Halloween?

Creation Update #147
Air-date: 11-05-2002
Resolving Timeline Problems with the Formation of Stars
 David Rogstad, Kenneth Samples and Krista Bontrager

  • Discoveries Discussed
    • Dating the formation of stars in our galaxy
      • Susan M. Percival and Maurizio Salaris and Francois van Wyk and David Kilkenny, "Resolving the 47 Tucanae Distance Problem," The Astrophysical Journal 573 (July 1, 2002), 174-183.
    • Extra-solar planet update
      • Takashi Ito and Shoken M. Miyama, "An Estimation of Upper Limit Masses of u Andromedae Planets," The Astrophysical Journal 552 (May 1, 2001), 372-379.
      • James, the brother of Jesus, ossuary box
      • Andre Lemaire, "Burial Box of James the Brother of Jesus," Biblical Archeology Review 28 (November/December 2002), 25-33.
  • Call-in Questions
    • George from Pasadena, CA: Wanted to propose a scientific test for the starlight travel problem
  • Email Questions
    • Shirley from Lake Tahoe, NV: What resources can you recommend to answer questions about whether intelligent life exists on other planets?
    • John from Minneapolis, MN: Is a person dies and their body is consumed by the ecosystem and now only exists as widely spread fragments of molecules and atoms, what will God raise up at the resurrection?
    • Richard: Have you ever heard of the Covenant creation view?
  • Theology/Philosophy segment
    • More on the James, the brother of Jesus, ossuary box
      • For more about Ken's perspectives on Mary and Roman Catholicism, he would recommend his book, The Cult of the Virgin, co-authored with Elliot Miller.
  • Boot Camp
    • How solid is the evidence for the resurrection of Jesus? What resources can you recommend?
    • "Reasoning Through the Resurrection," Facts for Faith, issue 9, Kenneth Samples
    • Knowing the Truth About the Resurrection, William Lane Craig
    • The Evidence of the Resurrection, J.N.D. Anderson

Creation Update #148
Air-date: 11-12-2002
A STARtling Discovery: A Nearly Metal-Free Star
 Hugh Ross, Fuz Rana and Krista Bontrager

  • Discoveries Discussed
    • Metal-free star
      • Catherine A. Pilachowski, "Relic of the dawn of time," Nature 419 (October 31, 2002), 886-887.
      • N. Christlieb, et al., "A stellar relic from the early Milky Way," Nature 419 (October 31, 2002), 904-906.
    • Forests and nitrogen fixation
      • Thomas H. DeLuca, et al., "Quantifying nitrogen-fixation in feather moss carpets of boreal forests," Nature 419 (October 31, 2002), 917-919.
    • Access the list of design characteristics Hugh mentions
    • Carbon-monoxide rich origin of life scenario
      • Shin Miyakawa, Stanley Miller, et al., "Prebiotic synthesis from CO atmospheres: Implications for the origins of life," PNAS 99 (November 12, 2002), 14628-14631.
  • Call-in Questions
    • Mike from Union, PA: Does Hugh Ross give authority to the Bible or science? The Genesis Debate
    • Dean from Tucson, AZ: What is "dark energy"? Is this the "missing matter" in the universe? We did an extended discussion on this issue on the 9/17/02 program of Creation Update.
    • John from Huntsville, AL: Scientific illiteracy is also a problem for apologists. Read Krista's Resource Helper for more information about resources that are right for you.
  • Email Questions
    • Larry wanted to know: Do other planets have metal and jewel mines?
    • Richard asked: Have you ever heard of the Covenant creation view?
  • Boot Camp
    • Bryan asked: Is carbon 14 dating reliable? Why are so many Christians skeptical about it? For more about the reliability of radiometric dating methods, we recommend Gordon Wiens article, "Radiometric Dating: A Christian Perspective," available through our website.
  • Philosophy/Theology segment
    • Scientific literacy in America
      • Jim Sweitzer, "Do you believe in the Big Bang?" Astronomy (December 2002), 34-39.

Creation Update #149
Air-date: 11-19-2002
Tracing Human Migration through Parasites
Hugh Ross, Fuz Rana and Krista Bontrager

  • Discoveries Discussed
    • Using parasites to date human migration to South America
      • Chandrabali Ghose, Guillermo I. Perez-Perez, et al., "East Asian genotypes of Helicobacter pylori strains in Amerindians provide evidence for its ancient human carriage," PNAS 99 (November 12, 2002), 15107-15111.
      • Hansjurgen T. Agostini, et al., "Asian genotypes of JC virus in Native Americans and in a Pacific Island population: Markers of viral evolution and human migration," PNAS 94 (December 1997), 14542-14546.
      • To hear our previous discussion about dating the first humans with parasites, please listen to "Creation Update" show #8/13/02.
    • Sea snakes
      • Richard Shine, et al., "Reproductive Isolating Mechanisms Between Two Sympatric Sibling Species of Sea Snakes," Evolution 56 (2002), 1655-1662.
  • Call-in Questions
    • Jason in Harrisburg: Are diseases caused by demons?
    • Eugene in WA wanted to tell Dr. Ross about his UFO experiences: Why should aliens obey the laws of physics?
    • Larry in Atlanta, GA: Are there any papers that appeal to "intelligent design" to explain a scientific phenomenon?
      • Resources Mentioned:
        • The Creator and the Cosmos, 3rd edition Hugh Ross
        • The Fifth Miracle, Paul Davies (available on
        • Origin of life researcher, Leslie Orgel on the web site
    • Kurt in Park City, MT: What views of young-earth creationism don't fit with the old-earth perspective?
      • The unaltered version of Hugh Ross's debate with Kent Hovind is available through Reasons To Believe.
    • Dan from Grandview, MO: How are planetary rings made?
      • Classical Mechanics, Herbert Goldstein (available on
    • Todd from Dallas, TX: What is a spectral line? Do spectral lines have any implications for a young universe?
    • David from North Carolina: How is plant speciation different than animal speciation?
      • "Oopsy, Daisy," Facts & Faith
  • Email Questions
    • Kelly wants to know: What's the difference between sympatric and allopatric speciation? Wouldn't a mutation have to occur in many members of the population, not just one? How did Hugh arrive at the ratios for beneficial to deleterious mutations?
      • For more on speciation, Fuz Rana recommends:
        • Frogs, Flies and Dandelions: Speciation - The Evolution of New Species, by Menno Schilthuizen (lay-man's discussion)
        • Species Concepts and Phylogenetic Theory, by Quentin Wheeler (editor) (advanced discussion)
  • Theology/Philosophy segment
    • Do the signs of the zodiac proclaim the Gospel?

Creation Update #150
Air-date: 11-26-2002
Have Scientists Discovered a Trigger for the Cambrian Explosion?
Hugh Ross, Fuz Rana and Krista Bontrager

  • Discoveries Discussed
    • Convergence Update: Fungus farming ants
      • Ulrich G. Mueller and Nicole Gerardo, "Fungus-farming insects: Multiple origins and diverse evolutionary histories" PNAS 24 (November 26, 2002), 15247-15249.
      • For more about this kind of symbiotic relationship, read Hugh's article: "Symbiosis: More Complex Than We Knew," Connections 1 (Quarter 2, 1999).
    • Convergence Update: Placenta of live-bearing fish
      • David N. Reznick, Mariana Mateos, and Mark S. Springer, "Independent Origins and Rapid Evolution of the Placenta in the Fish Genus Poeciliopsis" Science 298 (November 1, 2002), 1018-1020.
    • Trigger for the Cambrian Explosion?
      • Richard A. Kerr, "A Trigger for the Cambrian Explosion?" Science 298 (November 22, 2002), 1547.
    • Stars with uranium and thorium - refining radiometric dating methods
      • Hendrik Schaatz, Ralf Toenjes, et al., "Thorium and Uranium Chronometers Applied to CS 31082-001" The Astrophysical Journal 579 (November 10, 2002), 626-638.
    • Ammonia at the center of the Milky Way
      • Robeson M. Herrnstein and Paul T.P. Ho, "Hot Molecular Gas in the Molecular Center" The Astrophysical Journal 579 (November 10, 2002), L83-L86.
  • Call-in Questions
    • Kenny from Milton, FL: What evidence did you cite in the Psalm 104 television series about land plants existing 2.7 billion years ago?
      • Hugh Ross, "Timely Appearance of Land Life Benefits Humans," Connections 3 (Quarter 1, 2001), 3.
    • George from Pasadena, CA: What is the 4th dimension?
      • Hugh Ross, Beyond the Cosmos, 2nd edition
  • Email Questions
    • Jeff asked: What resources can you recommend that refute the evolutionist's claim that there are transitional forms in the fossil record?
    • Michael Denton, Evolution: A Theory in Crisis
    • Steve wanted to know: Are you aware of any published estimates of Bayesian analysis applied to Darwinian evolution?
    • Erik from Victoria, BC: Have you ever heard of someone named George Ellis? Are his perspectives compatible with RTB's?
      • What is RTB's perspective about the Bible story of Jonah?
      • A Modern Jonah (paper)
      • Joshua's Long Day (video)
    • Wayne asked: Are there more earthly grains of sand or stars in the universe?
  • Boot Camp: Where is the scientific method exemplified in the Bible? (from Ron K.)
    • For more about the scientific method and the Bible, see:
    • The appendix in Hugh's book, The Genesis Question.
    • Thomas Torrance (editor), Theology and Science: At the Frontiers of Knowledge (Edinburgh: Scottish Academic Press, 1990). (There are many other books by Torrance related to this topic available on
  • Theology/Philosophy segment
    • Will scientists create "life" in the lab? What are the moral ramifications?

Creation Update #151
Air-date: 12-03-2002
Tidal Dwarf Galaxies: More Astronomical Design
Hugh Ross, Fuz Rana and Krista Bontrager

  • Discoveries Discussed
    • Tidal dwarf galaxies
      • Peter M. Weilbacher, et al., "Large Velocity Gradients in the Tidal Tails of the Interacting Galaxy," The Astrophysical Journal Letters 579 (November 10, 2002), L79-L82.
      • Tommy Wiklind, "Close encounters of the tidal kind," Nature 420 (November 7, 2002), 38-39.
    • Helium-decay rate
      • D. Russell Humphreys, "Nuclear Decay: Evidence for a Young World," Impact 352 (October 2002), i-iv.
      • Listen to our past discussion of zircons on Creation Update, 02-05-02.
    • Bilirubin - example of elegant metabolic design
      • David E. Baranano, et al., "Biliverdin reductase: A major physiologic cytoprotectant," PNAS 99 (December 10, 2002), 16093-16098.
      • Sylvain Dore, et al., "Bilirubin, formed by activation of heme oxygenase-2, protects neurons against oxidative stress injury," PNAS 96 (March 1999), 2445-2450.
    • Fast-forming planets
      • Lucio Mayer, Thomas Quinn, James Wadsley, Joachim Stadel, "Formation of Giant Planets by Fragmentation of Protoplanetary Disks," Science 298 (November 29, 2002), 1756-1759.
      • Richard Kerr, "A Quickie Birth for Jupiters and Saturns," Science 298 (November 29, 2002), 1698-1699.
  • Call in Questions
    • Russell in Portland, OR asked: What is Hugh's opinion of Kent Hovind and Carl Baugh?
    • Mark from Flat Rock, IN: How do evolutionists use hox genes? Listen to our past discussion of the hox gene on Creation Update, 04-02-02.
    • James from Garland, TX: What is the "deep field south"?
    • Mike in Uniontown, PA: What is a good response when evolutionists use "chance" as a means to explain the universe or the existence of life?
  • Email Questions
    • Tom asked: What is the new time slot for the Reasons To Believe television show on TBN?
    • Doug in Pennsylvania: Jeremiah 31:37 seems to indicate that the heavens cannot be measured. But it seems that today the heavens can be measured. Can this be reconciled?
    • Rusty in Anaheim, CA: How many degrees warmer or cooler would the sun have to be in order for life not to be possible on the Earth?
  • Theology/Philosophy segment: Alien abductions and perspectives on Steven Spielberg's, Taken.

Creation Update Prime Time #4
Air-date: 12-05-2002
Origin-of-Life Researcher, Dr. Robert Shapiro
Hugh Ross, Fuz Rana, Kenneth Samples, and Krista Bontrager
Dr. Robert Shapiro, New York University

  • Hugh's guide to the best books on the origin-of-life:
  • Origins: A Skeptic's Guide to the Creation of Life on Earth, Robert Shapiro (out of print)
  • Information Theory and Molecular Biology, Hubert Yockey (out of print)
  • The Mystery of Life's Origin, Walter Bradley, Charles Thaxton
  • Coming in Fall 2003 - new origin of life book by Hugh Ross and Fuz Rana
  • Read Fuz Rana's paper on the origin of life: Origin of Life Predictions Face Off

Creation Update #152
Air-date: 12-10-2002
Mars: The End of the Warm, Wet Planet Theory?
Hugh Ross, Fuz Rana and Krista Bontrager

  • Discoveries Discussed
    • No more warm, wet Mars
      • Richard A. Kerr, "A Smashing Source of Early Martian Water?" Science 298 (December 6, 2002), 1866.
      • Teresa L. Segura, Owen B. Toon, Anthony Colaprete, Kevin Zahnle, "Environmental Effects of Large Impacts on Mars," Science 298 (December 6, 2002), 1977-1980.
    • Martian ejecta
      • James N. Head, H. Jay Melosh, and Boris A. Ivanov, "Martian Meteorite Launch: High-Speed Ejecta from Small Craters," Science 298 (November 29, 2002), 1752-1755.
    • Measuring the mass of extra-solar planets
    • "Hubble makes precise measure of extrasolar world's true mass," Space Telescope Science Institute on (December 5, 2002). Peer-reviewed paper coming soon in Astrophysical Journal Letters (December 20, 2002).
    • Re-evaluation of the earliest life on Earth
      • Jozef Kazmierczak and Barbara Kremer, "Thermal alteration of the Earth's oldest fossils," Nature 420 (December 5, 2002), 477-478.
      • To hear our previous discussion about microbial evidence for the earliest life on earth, listen to our 3-12-02 broadcast.
  • Call-in Questions
    • Dave wanted to know: If Christians disprove that chance is the mechanism responsible for the creation of the universe and all life, does it automatically mean that creationism is correct?
    • George in Pasadena, CA: How do scientists know the difference between Type 1 and Type 2 supernova?
    • Jeff in Colville, WA: How do evolutionists account for information theory? What do Hugh and Fuz think of the "intelligent design" movement?
  • Email Questions
    • Autumn in Anaheim, CA: How can the behemoth be a hippo when its tail is not like a cedar?
    • Joe wanted to know: What do you think of Pangea?
    • Rob in Northglenn, CO: What do you think the prebiotic earth's atmosphere was like and why?
      • Truth or Fiction? Alien implants

Creation Update #153
Air-date: 12-17-2002
Putting Mormonism to the Test
Hugh Ross, Fuz Rana and Krista Bontrager

  • Discoveries Discussed
    • Evidence for oldest meso-American culture
      • Erik Stokstad, "Oldest New World Writing Suggests Olmec Innovation," Science 298 (December 6, 2002), 1872-1874.
    • Testing DNA for Jewish connection to American Indians
      • William Lobdell and Larry B. Stammer, "Mormon Scientist, Church Clash Over DNA Test," Los Angeles Times (December 8, 2002).
      • Visit Mr. Murphy's personal web site.
    • Sequencing the mouse genome
      • Nature 420 (2002).
    • Imaging the Cosmic Microwave Background radiation
      • C.L. Kuo, et al., "High resolution observations of the CMB power spectrum with ACBAR," preprint (December 12, 2002).
    • Measuring the temperature of the Microwave Background radiation
      • E.S. Battistelli, M. De Petris, et al., "Cosmic microwave background temperature at galaxy clusters," The Astrophysical Journal Letters 580 (December 1, 2002), L101-L104.
  • Call-in Questions
    • Rusty in Oklahoma City, OK: Is there evidence that the speed of light has varied over time?
      • The Elegant Universe, Brian Greene
    • Brian in Elkhart, IN: Wanted to share comments on the historical background of Bethlehem
    • Ed from Medford, OR: Question from Stephen Jay Gould: Why did God create hominids in an unbroken sequence?
      • Ed also had a question about relativity:
      • Relativity Simply Explained, Martin Gardner
      • Relativity: An Introduction to Space-Time Physics, Steve Adams
    • Kenny from Milton, FL: Wanted to share some thoughts about sabre-tooth tigers as an example of repeatable evolution.
    • Doug from Gaithersburg, MD: Has RTB ever considered doing an academic conference?
  • Email Questions
    • Gabriel in Dallas, TX: What do make of the appearance of fractal patterns in "junk" DNA?

Creation Update #154
Air-date: 12-31-2002
Response to ClonAid Birth Announcement
Fuz Rana, Kenneth Samples and Krista Bontrager

  • Ken's New Year's challenge:
  • The Confessions, St. Augustine
  • Pensees, Blaise Pascal
  • On the Incarnation, Athanasius
  • Mere Christianity, C.S. Lewis
  • On the Bondage of the Will, Martin Luther
  • Krista's list:
  • How to Read the Bible for All its Worth, Stuart and Fee
  • Amusing Ourselves to Death, Neil Postman
  • Scaling the Secular City, J.P. Moreland
  • The Text of the New Testament, Bruce Metzger
  • Well-Trained Mind, Wise and Bauer