Reasons to Believe

Fine-Tuning for Life in the Universe (JUNE 2002)

© 2002 Reasons To Believe

For physical life to be possible in the universe, several characteristics must take on specific values, and these are listed below.1 In the case of several of these characteristics, and given the intricacy of their interrelationships, the indication of divine “fine tuning” seems incontrovertible.

  1. Strong nuclear force constant
  2. Weak nuclear force constant
  3. Gravitational force constant
  4. Electromagnetic force constant
  5. Ratio of electromagnetic force constant to gravitational force constant
  6. Ratio of proton to electron mass
  7. Ratio of number of protons to number of electrons
  8. Expansion rate of the universe
  9. Mass density of the universe
  10. Baryon (proton and neutron) density of the universe
  11. Space energy density of the universe
  12. Entropy level of the universe
  13. Velocity of light
  14. Age of the universe
  15. Uniformity of radiation
  16. Homogeneity of the universe
  17. Average distance between galaxies
  18. Average distance between stars
  19. Average size and distribution of galaxy clusters
  20. Fine structure constant
  21. Decay rate of protons
  22. Ground state energy level for helium-4
  23. Carbon-12 to oxygen-16 nuclear energy level ratio
  24. Decay rate for beryllium-8
  25. Ratio of neutron mass to proton mass
  26. Initial excess of nucleons over antinucleons
  27. Polarity of the water molecule
  28. Epoch for hypernova eruptions
  29. Number and type of hypernova eruptions
  30. Epoch for supernova eruptions
  31. Number and types of supernova eruptions
  32. Epoch for white dwarf binaries
  33. Density of white dwarf binaries
  34. Ratio of exotic matter to ordinary matter
  35. Number of effective dimensions in the early universe
  36. Number of effective dimensions in the present universe
  37. Mass of the neutrino
  38. Decay rates of exotic mass particles
  39. Magnitude of big bang ripples
  40. Size of the relativistic dilation factor
  41. Magnitude of the Heisenberg uncertainty
  42. Quantity of gas deposited into the deep intergalactic medium by the first supernovae
  43. Positive nature of cosmic pressures
  44. Positive nature of cosmic energy densities
  45. Density of quasars
  46. Decay rate of cold dark matter particles
  47. relative abundances of different exotic mass particles

1Most of the source references may be found in The Creator and the Cosmos, 3rd edition by Hugh Ross (Colorado Springs, CO: NavPress, 2001), pp. 145-157, 245-248. Additional references are listed below:

  1. Weihsueh A. Chiu, Nickolay Y. Gneden and Jeremiah P. Ostriker, “The Expected Mass Function for Low-Mass Galaxies in a Cold Dark Matter Cosmology: Is There a Problem?” Astrophysical Journal, 563 (2001), pp. 21-27.
  2. Martin Elvis, Massimo Marengo, and Margarita Karovska, “Smoking Quasars: A New Source for Cosmic Dust,” Astrophysical Journal Letters, 567 (2002), pp. L107-L110.
  3. Martin White and C. S. Kochanek, “Constraints on the Long-Range Properties of Gravity from Weak Gravitational Lensing,” Astrophysical Journal, 560 (2001), pp. 539-543.
  4. P. P. Avelino and C. J. A. P. Martins, “A Supernova Brane Scan,” Astrophysical Journal, 565 (2002), pp. 661-667.
  5. P. deBernardis, et al, “Multiple Peaks in the Angular Power Spectrum of the Cosmic Microwave Background: Significance and Consequences for Cosmology,” Astrophysical Journal, 564 (2002), pp. 559-566.
  6. A. T. Lee, et al, “A High Spatial Resolution Analysis of the MAXIMA-1 Cosmic Microwave Background Anisotropy Data,” Astrophysical Journal Letters, 561 (2001), pp. L1-L5.
  7. R. Stompor, et al, “Cosmological Implications of MAXIMA-1 High-Resolution Cosmic Microwave Background Anisotropy Measurement,” Astrophysical Journal Letters, 561 (2001), pp. L7-L10.
  8. Andrew Watson, “Cosmic Ripples Confirm Universe Speeding Up,” Science, 295 (2002), pp. 2341-2343.
  9. Anthony Aguirre, Joop Schaye, and Eliot Quataert, “Problems for Modified Newtonian Dynamics in Clusters and the Lya Forest?” Astrophysical Journal, 561 (2001), pp. 550-558.
  10. Chris Blake and Jasper Wall, “A Velocity Dipole in the Distribution of Radio Galaxies,” Nature, 416 (2002), pp. 150-152.
  11. G. Efstathiou, et al, “Evidence for a Non-Zero L and a Low Matter Density from a Combined Analysis of the 2dF Galaxy Redshift Survey and Cosmic Microwave Background Anisotropies,” Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, 330 (2002), pp. L29-L35.
  12. Susana J. Landau and Hector Vucetich, “Testing Theories That Predict Time Variation of Fundamental Constants, “ Astrophysical Journal, 570 (2002), pp. 463-469.
  13. Renyue Cen, “Why Are There Dwarf Spheroidal Galaxies?” Astrophysical Journal Letters, 549 (2001), pp. L195-L198.
  14. Brandon Carter, "Energy Dominance and the Hawking Ellis Vacuum Conservation Theorem," (2002), arXiv:gr-qc/0205010 v1, 2 May 2002.


Subjects: Earth/Moon Design, Galaxy Design, Solar System Design, Universe Design

Dr. Hugh Ross

Reasons to Believe emerged from my passion to research, develop, and proclaim the most powerful new reasons to believe in Christ as Creator, Lord, and Savior and to use those new reasons to reach people for Christ. Read more about Dr. Hugh Ross.