© 2004 Reasons To Believe
For physical life to be possible in the universe, several characteristics must take on specific values, and these are listed below.1 In the case of several of these characteristics, and given the intricacy of their interrelationships, the indication of divine "fine tuning" seems incontrovertible.
1. Strong nuclear force constant
2. Weak nuclear force constant
3. Gravitational force constant
4. Electromagnetic force constant
5. Ratio of electromagnetic force constant to gravitational force constant
6. Ratio of proton to electron mass
7. Ratio of number of protons to number of electrons
8. Ratio of proton to electron charge
9. Expansion rate of the universe
10. Mass density of the universe
11. Baryon (proton and neutron) density of the universe
12. Space energy or dark energy density of the universe
13. Ratio of space energy density to mass density
14. Entropy level of the universe
15. Velocity of light
16. Age of the universe
17. Uniformity of radiation
18. Homogeneity of the universe
19. Average distance between galaxies
20. Average distance between galaxy clusters
21. Average distance between stars
22. Average size and distribution of galaxy clusters
23. Numbers, sizes, and locations of cosmic voids
24. Fine structure constant
25. Decay rate of protons
26. Ground state energy level for helium-4
27. Carbon-12 to oxygen-16 nuclear energy level ratio
28. Decay rate for beryllium-8
29. Ratio of neutron mass to proton mass
30. Initial excess of nucleons over antinucleons
31. Polarity of the water molecule
32. Epoch for hypernova eruptions
33. Number and type of hypernova eruptions
34. Epoch for supernova eruptions
35. Number and types of supernova eruptions
36. Epoch for white dwarf binaries
37. Density of white dwarf binaries
38. Ratio of exotic matter to ordinary matter
39. Number of effective dimensions in the early universe
40. Number of effective dimensions in the present universe
41. Mass of the neutrino
42. Number of neutrinos in the universe
43. Decay rates of exotic mass particles
44. Magnitude of the temperature ripples in cosmic background radiation
45. Size of the relativistic dilation factor
46. Magnitude of the Heisenberg uncertainty
47. Quantity of gas deposited into the deep intergalactic medium by the first supernovae
48. Positive nature of cosmic pressures
49. Positive nature of cosmic energy densities
50. Density of quasars
51. Decay rate of cold dark matter particles
52. Relative abundances of different exotic mass particles
53. Degree to which exotic matter self interacts
54. Epoch for the formation of the first stars
55. Epoch for the formation of the first galaxies
56. Epoch for the formation of the first quasars
57. Amount, rate, and epoch of decay of embedded defects
58. Ratio of warm exotic matter density to cold exotic matter density
59. Ratio of hot exotic matter density to cold exotic matter density
60. Level of quantization of the cosmic spacetime fabric
61. Flatness of universe's geometry
62. Average rate of increase in galaxy sizes
63. Change in average rate of increase in galaxy sizes throughout cosmic history
64. Constancy of dark energy factors
65. Epoch for star formation peak
66. Location of exotic matter relative to ordinary matter
67. Strength of primordial cosmic magnetic field
68. Level of primordial magnetohydrodynamic turbulence
69. Level of charge-parity violation
70. Number of galaxies in the observable universe
71. Polarization level of the cosmic background radiation
72. Date for the second reionization of the universe
73. Date of subsidence of gamma-ray burst production
74. Relative density of intermediate mass stars in the early history of the universe
75. Water's temperature of maximum density
76. Water's heat of fusion
77. Water's heat of vaporization
1Most of the source references may be found in The Creator and the Cosmos, 3rd edition by Hugh Ross (Colorado Springs, CO: NavPress, 2001), pp. 145-157, 245-248. Additional references are listed below:
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