Reasons to Believe

Fine-Tuning For Life In The Universe

2006 August Update

by Hugh Ross

© 2006 Reasons to Believe

For physical life to be possible in the universe, several characteristics must take on specific values, and these are listed below.1 In the case of several of these characteristics, and given the intricacy of their interrelationships, the indication of divine "fine tuning" seems incontrovertible.

  1. Strong nuclear force constant
  2. Weak nuclear force constant
  3. Gravitational force constant
  4. Electromagnetic force constant
  5. Ratio of electromagnetic force constant to gravitational force constant
  6. Ratio of proton to electron mass
  7. Ratio of number of protons to number of electrons
  8. Ratio of proton to electron charge
  9. Expansion rate of the universe
  10. Mass density of the universe
  11. Baryon (proton and neutron) density of the universe
  12. Space energy or dark energy density of the universe
  13. Ratio of space energy density to mass density
  14. Entropy level of the universe
  15. Velocity of light
  16. Age of the universe
  17. Uniformity of radiation
  18. Homogeneity of the universe
  19. Average distance between galaxies
  20. Average distance between galaxy clusters
  21. Average distance between stars
  22. Average size and distribution of galaxy clusters
  23. Numbers, sizes, and locations of cosmic voids
  24. Electromagnetic fine structure constant
  25. Gravitational fine-structure constant
  26. Decay rate of protons
  27. Ground state energy level for helium-4
  28. Carbon-12 to oxygen-16 nuclear energy level ratio
  29. Decay rate for beryllium-8
  30. Ratio of neutron mass to proton mass
  31. Initial excess of nucleons over antinucleons
  32. Polarity of the water molecule
  33. Epoch for hypernova eruptions
  34. Number and type of hypernova eruptions
  35. Epoch for supernova eruptions
  36. Number and types of supernova eruptions
  37. Epoch for white dwarf binaries
  38. Density of white dwarf binaries
  39. Ratio of exotic matter to ordinary matter
  40. Number of effective dimensions in the early universe
  41. Number of effective dimensions in the present universe
  42. Mass values for the active neutrinos
  43. Number of different species of active neutrinos
  44. Number of active neutrinos in the universe
  45. Mass value for the sterile neutrino
  46. Number of sterile neutrinos in the universe
  47. Decay rates of exotic mass particles
  48. Magnitude of the temperature ripples in cosmic background radiation
  49. Size of the relativistic dilation factor
  50. Magnitude of the Heisenberg uncertainty
  51. Quantity of gas deposited into the deep intergalactic medium by the first supernovae
  52. Positive nature of cosmic pressures
  53. Positive nature of cosmic energy densities
  54. Density of quasars
  55. Decay rate of cold dark matter particles
  56. Relative abundances of different exotic mass particles
  57. Degree to which exotic matter self interacts
  58. Epoch at which the first stars (metal-free pop III stars) begin to form
  59. Epoch at which the first stars (metal-free pop III stars cease to form
  60. Number density of metal-free pop III stars
  61. Average mass of metal-free pop III stars
  62. Epoch for the formation of the first galaxies
  63. Epoch for the formation of the first quasars
  64. Amount, rate, and epoch of decay of embedded defects
  65. Ratio of warm exotic matter density to cold exotic matter density
  66. Ratio of hot exotic matter density to cold exotic matter density
  67. Level of quantization of the cosmic spacetime fabric
  68. Flatness of universe's geometry
  69. Average rate of increase in galaxy sizes
  70. Change in average rate of increase in galaxy sizes throughout cosmic history
  71. Constancy of dark energy factors
  72. Epoch for star formation peak
  73. Location of exotic matter relative to ordinary matter
  74. Strength of primordial cosmic magnetic field
  75. Level of primordial magnetohydrodynamic turbulence
  76. Level of charge-parity violation
  77. Number of galaxies in the observable universe
  78. Polarization level of the cosmic background radiation
  79. Date for completion of second reionization event of the universe
  80. Date of subsidence of gamma-ray burst production
  81. Relative density of intermediate mass stars in the early history of the universe
  82. Water's temperature of maximum density
  83. Water's heat of fusion
  84. Water's heat of vaporization
  85. Number density of clumpuscules (dense clouds of cold molecular hydrogen gas) in the universe
  86. Average mass of clumpuscules in the universe
  87. Location of clumpuscules in the universe
  88. Dioxygen's kinetic oxidation rate of organic molecules
  89. Level of paramagnetic behavior in dioxygen
  90. Density of ultra-dwarf galaxies (or supermassive globular clusters) in the middle-aged universe
  91. Degree of space-time warping and twisting by general relativistic factors
  92. Percentage of the initial mass function of the universe made up of intermediate mass stars
  93. Strength of the cosmic primordial magnetic field

Note: Most of the source references may be found in The Creator and the Cosmos, 3rd edition by Hugh Ross (Colorado Springs, CO: NavPress, 2001), pp. 145-157, 245-248. Additional references are listed below:

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  3. Martin Elvis, Massimo Marengo, and Margarita Karovska, "Smoking Quasars: A New Source for Cosmic Dust," Astrophysical Journal Letters, 567 (2002), pp. L107-L110.
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  10. Anthony Aguirre, Joop Schaye, and Eliot Quataert, "Problems for Modified Newtonian Dynamics in Clusters and the Ly Forest?" Astrophysical Journal, 561 (2001), pp. 550-558.
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  36. Robert R. Caldwell, et al, "Early Quintessence in Light of the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe," Astrophysical Journal Letters, 591 (2003), pp. L75-L78.
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  44. T. Jacobson, S. Liberati, and D. Mattingly, "A Strong Astrophysical Constraint on the Violation of Special Relativity by Quantum Gravity," Nature, 424 (2003), pp. 1019-1021.
  45. Sean Carroll, "Quantum Gravity: An Astrophysical Constraint," Nature, 424 (2003), pp. 1007-1008.
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  48. Jean-Pierre Luminet, et al, "Dodecahedral Space Topology as an Explanation for Weak-Angle Temperature Correlations in the Cosmic Microwave Background," Nature, 425 (2003), pp. 593-595.
  49. George F. R. Ellis, "The Shape of the Universe," Nature, 425 (2003), pp. 566-567.
  50. Charles Seife, "Polyhedral Model Gives the Universe an Unexpected Twist," Science, 302 (2003), p. 209.
  51. Neil J. Cornish, et al, "Constraining the Topology of the Universe," astro-ph/0310233, submitted to Physical Review Letters, 2003.
  52. David Kirkman, et al, "The Cosmological Baryon Density from the Deuterium-to-Hydrogen Ratio in QSO Absorption Systems: D/H Toward Q1243+3047," Astrophysical Journal Supplement, 149 (2003), pp. 1-28.
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  75. Timothy P. Ashenfelter and Grant J. Mathews, "The Fine-Structure Constant as a Probe of Chemical Evolution and Asymptotic Giant Branch Nucleosynthesis in Damped Lya Systems," Astrophysical Journal, 615 (2004), pp. 82-97.
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Subjects: Universe Design

Dr. Hugh Ross

Reasons to Believe emerged from my passion to research, develop, and proclaim the most powerful new reasons to believe in Christ as Creator, Lord, and Savior and to use those new reasons to reach people for Christ. Read more about Dr. Hugh Ross.