Reasons to Believe

Concentrating Copper

TNRTB Archive - Retained for reference information

Scientists have discovered that a certain geological process and the rate at which it operates appear to be fine-tuned so as to provide humanity with concentrated copper ore—critical for the launch of human civilization and technology. Specifically, the geophysics of the earth’s crust must be fine-tuned to provide in a particular location in the upper crust efficient flows of certain chemical compositions (silicate melt, hypersaline hydrothermal fluid, and hydrothermal vapor). The resulting mixture cools to allow copper sulfide to crystallize and precipitate. In addition, the initial temperature and pressure at the site and both the rate and amount of decompression and cooling must be fine-tuned. Timing is also critical. Enough time must elapse for a significant ore deposit to form but too much time leads to dilution through erosion and plate tectonics. Such fine-tuned parameters indicate a Creator’s careful, loving design for the benefit of humanity.


Anthony C. Harris, et al, “Melt Inclusions in Veins: Linking Magmas and Porphyry Cu Deposits,” Science, 302 (2003), pp. 2109-2111; Jean S. Cline, “How to Concentrate Copper,” Science, 302 (2003), pp. 2075-2076.

RTB articles: Facts for Faith article on the faint sun paradox

RTB video: Journey Toward Creation, 2nd edition

RTB book: The Creator and the Cosmos, 3rd edition

Subjects: Earth/Moon Design

Dr. Hugh Ross

Reasons to Believe emerged from my passion to research, develop, and proclaim the most powerful new reasons to believe in Christ as Creator, Lord, and Savior and to use those new reasons to reach people for Christ. Read more about Dr. Hugh Ross.